What element makes protein different from carbohydrates and fat?
A complete Protein
contains all 9 essential amino acids
Two acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process
is a complete source of protein
are the most complete protein from a plant source
Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered non-essential?
Providing energy to the body
is NOT a major function of protein in the human body
are proteins that are fundamental to the immune system
Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the
Benito is a healthy 19-year-old college student who is sedentary. He is 5'11" tall and weighs 175 pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend he consumes?
are classified as a micronutrient
Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis
Which two vitamins pose the greatest risk for toxicity?
Vitamins A & D
Vitamins A, D, E & K are best absorbed with foods that are rich in?
is a trace mineral
________ of a adults healthy body weight is fluid.
Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?
Water is resistant to change in.
Water freely moves across cell membranes
Ian is hospitalized for dehydration after experiencing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Which of the following is NOT associated with Ian's dehydrated condition?
The extracellular electrolyte concentration will be very low.
What is the primary reason we sweat?
to regulate body temperature
Most water is lost daily via _______.
The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of _______ in and out of the muscle cell.
Is NOT a major mineral.
Diets high in sodium are associated with:
High Blood Pressure
Better suffers from hypertension, and her physician has advised her to reduce her salt intake. Which of the following recommendations would you suggest Bette use to lower her sodium intake?
a. Avoid processed foods such as canned soups and quick cooking items.
b. Choose fresh fruit and veggies
c. DASH Diet
Diets rich in _______ are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.
The majority of dietary chloride is consumed from ______.
is a diuretic
After completing a 10K run, Bonita notices her urine is brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita's hydration status?
She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.
carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?
_______ is a storage form of glucose in animals found in liver and skeletal muscle.
The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the:
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the:
muscles & liver
What is the preferred fuels for most body functions?
carbohydrate and fat
Insulin is synthesized and released by the:
Glucose is the preferred source of energy for which of the following?
a. red blood cells
c. central nervous system
In the absence of carbohydrate, ____are produced from the incomplete breakdown of the body fat.
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?
How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals? (RDA)
Over 16 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.
Lactose intolerance is due to a/an
deficiency of lactase
Yogurt is tolerated better than milk by many lactase-deficient people because:
bacteria in yogurt help digest the lactose.
The rate of overweight status in school-age children (6-19) has ______ since the 70's.
are NOT major classes of dietary lipids.
A triglyceride includes:
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
A fatty acid that contains a chain of 10 carbons and one double bond is termed a:
monounsaturated, medium chain fatty acid.
a fatty acid that is generally solid at room temperature
the process of adding hydrogen too an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called
diets high in trans-fatty acids are associated with:
increased blood cholesterol levels
________ is/are the key structural component of a cell's membrane
which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?
fat provides an immediate source of energy during exercise.
The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the
to facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as:
Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?
How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?
The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for fat is _______ of total energy intake.
To lower cardiovascular risk it is recommended that we consume less than ______ of our total daily caloric intake from saturated fat.
The following is TRUE regarding the science of nutrition
a. as compared to many other scientific disciplines, nutrition is a young science
b. discoveries by the first nutritional scientist established the connection between deficiencies and illnesses.
c. in developed countries current research in nutrition focuses on the relationship between diet and chronic disease
what is the primary source of fuel for the brain?
what element makes protein different form carbohydrates and fat?
________ are examples of inorganic nutrients.
Jane consumed a breakfast that contained 85g of carbohydrates, 20 grams of protein, and 18 grams of fat. How many kilocalories did Jane eat at breakfast?
85*4 = 340
20*4 = 80
18*9 = 162
Wheat and Lentils
are examples of carbohydrate rich foods
the building blocks of proteins are called
Vitamins are classified into two groups
fat soluble; water soluble
the Dietary reference intake (DRI's) were established to re-focus nutrient recommendations toward preventing
_______ are strongly accepted principles supported by many hypotheses that have been collectively confirmed through repeated research.
the four characteristics of a healthful diet are adequacy, balance, moderation, and _______.
the information provided on a food label that identifies how much a serving of food contributes to your intake of nutrients based on 2,000 calories a day is called the:
% daily value
the nutrition facts panel on a box of crackers indicates that one serving provides 140 calories, with 55 calories coming from fat, what is the % of fat coming from calories?
55/140 = .39
the dietary guidelines for Americans recommends a minimum of:
30 minutes of moderate activity most or all days of the week
Diets high in sugar are directly associated with:
the fruits section of MyPyramid emphasizes: "Focus on fruits" and encourages the consumption of all of the following EXCEPT
______ is the slogan used by my-pyramid to encourage gradual improvements in diet and lifestyle.
steps to a healthier you
according to my-pyramid, which of the following foods would count toward an individuals discretionary calorie intake?
the exchange system was originally designed for individuals with
these are many types of diet plans available today. The overall best diet plan is one that
fits the lifestyle and needs of the individual
appetite is triggered by
the culture in which one is raised
the smell, taste, and texture of food
the time of day
the smallest units of matter that normally cannot be broken down are
cell membranes are primarily composed of
what is the term that describes the process in which foods are broken down into their component molecules?
bob eats is breakfast. His GI tract will now begin the process of digestion and absorbing the nutrients from this meal. What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process?
mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine
which best explains why carbohydrate digestion ceases when food reaches the stomach?
salivary enzymes cannot function in the acid environment of the stomach.
a primary function of the mucus in the stomach is to
protect stomach cells from autodigestion
which of the following organs is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of many digestive enzymes and bicarbonate?
bicarbonate is release into the duodenum during the process of digestion. Why?
to neutralize the acidic chyme
eating two large meals a day would be recommended for the treatment of GERD