Marbury V Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
McCullough V Maryland
In establishing a national bank, Congress was legally exercising its enumerated powers not sepcifically mentioned in the Constitution.
Cohen V Virginia
Established the authority of the court to review state criminal cases on appeal
Gibbons V Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Dred Scott 1857
Outlawed Missouri Compromise. Denial of slavery was a 5th amendment property violation. Blacks were NOT citizens
Plessy V Ferguson 1896
Seperate but equal facilities based upon race is constitutional
Schenk v. U.S. 1919
Congress has the right to prohibit speech that causes a "clear and present danger"
West Virginia Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)
Students in public schools may not be compelled to recite the Pledge of Allegiance
Korematsu v. U.S.
The court ruled that the ordering of Japanese=Americans into internment camps was constitutional
Brown V Board 1954
Segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment
Mapp V Ohio
Established the exclusionary rule was applicable to the states (evidence seized illegally cannot be used in court)
Engle V Vitale
Mandatory prayer in schools is a violation of the establishment clause
Gideon V Wainright 1963
If a defendant cannot afford an attorney the state must provide one
Griswold V Connecticut
Established that there is an implied right to privacy in the U.S. Constitution
Miranda V Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Though they can be restricted, "students do not leave their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door"
Lemon V Kurtzman
Law must be clearly secular, not prohibiting or inhibiting religion, and there should be no excessive entanglement
Roe V Wade 1973
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment
U.S. V Nixon
"Executive privilege" is not unlimited
Gregg V Georgia 1976
Death penalty is not "cruel and unusual punishment" in cases of murder
Regents of California V Bakke
Race can not be the only factor in college admissions, there can be no quotas.
South Dakota V Dole
Federal government allowed to use spending power to influence state policy for the public wefare (drinking age went up in the states in order to get federal funding)
Texas V Johnson 1984
Flag burning is protected speech
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)
States can place restrictions on abortions (viability tests, no use of public facilities for abortions, no counseling to have abortions)
Clinton V Jones
A sitting president is not immune to civil litigation except in extraordinary circumstances
Reno V ACLU 1996
Federal law designed to prohibit "indecency" on the internet was unconstitutional
Clinton V New York City 1997
Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional
Bush V Gore 2001
Hand-counting in Florida was a violation of Equal Protection clause, made George W. Bush the winner of the 2000 election
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Race can be used as a factor for admission into a public law school as long as the policy is "narrowly tailored"
Kelo V New London 2005
"Eminent Domain" may be used to take private property for the public good even if this means giving it to private developers
Wesberry V Sanders
One person, one vote (in redistricting for federal elections, each congressional district was to be approximately the same) In Georgia, the 5th district had 3 to 4 times more people than did the other districts.
Buckley V Valeo
Candidates can use as much of their own money on their own campaigns.
Baker V Carr
One person one vote-state elections (Warren Court's judicial activism.)
New York Times V Sullivan
Libel case-writer did it with intent to defame-knew it was false-wrote it with malicious intent. Public officials/figures have less privacy rights.
Printz V United States 1997
Using the Necessary and Proper Clause of Article I as justification, Congress CAN NOT require state officials to regulate handgun purchases by performing those duties called for by the Brady Bill's handgun applicant background-checks?
United States V Morrison 2000
Congress DOES NOT have the authority to enact the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 under either the Commerce Clause or Fourteenth Amendment?
Smith V Allright 1944
Outlawed all white primaries
U.S. Term Limits Inc. Thornton 1995
States CAN NOT alter qualifications for the U.S. Congress that are specifically enumerated in the Constitution?
Near V Minnesota
the 1931 Supreme Court decision holding that the first amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.
Miller V California
1973 ruling that determined the obscenity clause to related to works that lack literary, artisitic, political or scientific value. (LAPS test)
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Provided test for determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be applicable to the states - those which are fundamently necessary for liberty to exist.
Epperson V Arkansas 1968
Prohibited states from banning the teaching of evolution.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1987)
More leeway for states in regulation abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade. Upholds MO law prohibiting abortion in public hospitals; shift in composition of court. (Later cases allow 24-hour waiting periods, parental consent for minors, etc.)
Shaw V Reno 1993
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
U.S. Lopez 1995
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Barron V Baltimore 1833
Bill of Rights was NOT applicable to the states