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Florida Institute of Animal Arts access

stallion

mature male horse

mare

mature female horse

filly

immature female horse

foal

horse under the age of 1

colt

immature male horse

gelding

castrated male horse

mule

offspring of a male donkey, female horse

hinny

offspring of a male horse, female donkey

donkey

like a small horse with long ears (males; jack, females; jenny -- aka ass or burro)

ungulate

hoofed animals (hooflike)

gaits (3 types of)

walk, trot, gallop (canter, stepping pace, running walk, fox trot, amble, rack & pace)

cannon bone

weight bearing shin bone (3rd metacarpal (metatarsal) of the horse)

splint bones

two bones on either side of the cannon bone (shin bone)

sesamoid bones

two bones found at the back of the fetlock (joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs)

pastern bones

part of the horse between the fetlock joint and the hoof (consists of two bones, the uppermost is proximal phalanx and the lower is middle phalanx)

pedal bone

bottomost bone in the equine leg and is encased by the hoof capsule (commonly known as the coffin bone)

lateral neck muscles (gluteal muscles)

injection sites

calcium and phosphorus

essential minerals

Vit A, B, E (Vit D is synthesized)

vitamins to be provided in feed

can't vomit, no gallbladder (to store bile), large cecum

digestive system (differences)

stomach

stores, mixes, digests and propels feed into the small intestine

small intestines

is where most feed nutrients are digested and absorbed (aka uppergut)

large intestine (includes)

cecum and colon (aka hindgut)

cecum

undigested nutrients are fermented (similar to that which occurs in the forestomach of ruminants)

colon

further digestion and absorption (in hindgut)

10-24 months

horse sexual maturity

11 months

horse gestation

foal heat

mare comes in heat about a week after foaling

premarin

pregnant mares urine (far a drug made of conjugated estrogen)

oribatid mite

intermediate tapeworm host (small mites found in virtually all soils all over the world.)

ileocecal junction (opening between the ileum, or small intestine, the colon and the cecum)

where Anoplocephala perfoliata (equine tapeworm) tend to congregate

tapeworm

eggs pass thru feces, ate by oribatid mite, transmitted by ingestion of the oribatid mite, treated with equimax

pinworms

female worms crawl out of the horse's rectum, deposit eggs on the perianal region, and crawl back into the rectum, transmitted by ingestion of eggs, treated with strongid

Roundworm

eggs pass thru feces, transmitted by the ingestion of eggs, treated with strongid (& regular internal parasite control program)(eggs are viable for up to 10yrs)(aka ascarid)

Strongyles

eggs pass thru feces, develop into larvae in the feces (lives up to 3 months), transmitted by ingestion of the larvae (which may attach to grass blades), treated with strongid (& regular internal parasite control program)(aka bloodworm)

anthelmintic

dewormer (purging wormer; strongid, others; ivermectin or moxidectin)

bot fly

fly attaches eggs to hair follicles, larvae are ingested, treated with invermectin (& regular internal parasite control program)

large strongyles (s vulgaris)

most important internal parasite

sucking lice

treated with systematic insecticides or avermectins (lice)

biting lice

treated with dipping (or spraying) insecticides

sarcoptes mange

treated with avermectins (mites)

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP)

an inherited disease of the muscle which is caused by a genetic defect (common in quarter horses)

Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH)

bleeding from blood vessels within the lung (pulmonary) (bleeding from the nose; epistaxis) (aka bleeders)

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) (aka swamp fever)

infectious viral disease that attacks the horse's immune system (closely related to HIV)

Equine Encephalitis virus (EEE, WEE; eastern,western)(aka sleeping sickness)

virus spread to horses and humans by infected mosquitoes, vaccine available for horses)(CNS dysfunction and moderate to high mortality)

Equine Herpes Virus (aka equine abortion virus)

Equine rhinopneumonitis virus (two most common strains are EHV-1, which causes abortion, respiratory disease and neurologic disease; and EHV-4, which usually causes respiratory disease only but can occasionally cause abortion, vaccine available)

equine vaccines

influenza, tetanus, encephalitis (EEE,WEE), herpes (EHV) (also rabies, botulism, Equine viral arteritis (EVA), strangles, west nile)

strangles

an acute bacterial (streptocucus Equi) disease of horses characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes, treated with penicillin(aka distemper/shipping fever)

colic

not a disease, rather a group of symptoms in response to abdominal pain

leptospirosis

bacterial (leptospira) infection of the kidneys

laminitis (aka founder)

painful condition of the hooved foot (inflammation of the lamina)

Enterotoxemia

result of toxins produced by spore-forming bacteria (Clostridium perfringens; types B and C causes severe enteritis, dysentery, toxemia)(aka overeating disease)

Potomac horse fever (PHF)

transmitted by insects, causative agent Ehrlichia risticii, treated with oxytetracycline and IV fluids (causes acute diarrhea) (aka Equine ehrlichial colitis, Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Ditch fever, Shasta River crud)(mortality 30%)

Tetanus

toxemia caused by a specific neurotoxin produced a bacteria (Clostridium tetani) in necrotic tissue, treated with antitoxin (aka lockjaw)

Anthrax

septicemia (blood poisoning) caused by the sporeforming bacterium (Bacillus anthracis), vaccine available, treatment usually not possible due to acute nature but is sensitive to pencillin, streptomycin & tetracyclines)

botulism

intoxication with a neurotoxin produced by sporeforming, anaerobic bacterium (Clostridium botulinum) that inhabits soils and marine and freshwater sediments), treated with antitoxin

99.1F-100.8F, 32-44bpm, 8-6bpm

horse TPR

<102.7, 128bpm, 14-15bpm

foal TPR

Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)

a common neurologic disease caused by the ingestion of S neurona sporocysts (protozoa) in contaminated feed or water

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