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Dr. David Livingstone

Scottish missionary who traveled to Africa in the 1850s; wrote the book "Missionary Travels"; became a consul; died in central Africa in 1873.

Robert Moffat

Missionary who spent time in Africa; inspired Dr. David Livingstone to become a missionary to Africa.

Missionary Travels

book written by Dr. Livingstone in 1857; details his explorations as a missionary in Africa

consul

British government official; title given to Dr. Livingstone in 1858 by British government.

Henry Morton Stanley

American reporter who traveled to Africa in search of Dr. Livingstone; wrote for the New York Times; famous for saying "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"; helped to map out trade routes in the Congo

King Leopold II

king of Belgium; wanted to claim land in Africa for Belgium; established International African Association

International African Association

organization established by King Leopold II to bring modern science and trade into Africa; used this Association to claim land as own personal colony

The Scramble

the years after 1880, in Africa, when many European countries were elbowing each other to gain land in Africa

Berlin Conference

1884; Germany held conference of European nations to set rules about gaining land in Africa; agreed that if any country had built trading posts and missionary stations then they "occupied" the land and no other country would try to claim or attack that territory; did not take into account African tribes who lived in these lands

Boers

Dutch settlers who settled in southern Africa over 100 years before The Scramble; later known as Afrikaners

Cape Colony

the colony that the Dutch built in southern Africa; later taken over by the British

Great Trek

the northern migration of the Boers out of Cape Colony because the didn't want to live under British control

Free State

one of two colonies settled by the Boers after the Great Trek

Transvaal

one of two colonies settled by the Boers after the Great Trek

Boer War

war between the British and the Boers; started because of the invasion of Transvaal by the British; ended in 1902 by the Peace of Vereeniging; led to the formation of the Union of South Africa

Mafeking

British railroad town in southern Africa that was surrounded by Boers for 217 days

Peace of Vereeniging

peace treaty signed in 1902 by the Afrikaners and British; united all the colonies in southern Africa into British controlled Union of South Africa

protectorate

Nation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country; Liberia was a protectorate

Yohannes IV

one of two emperors of Ethiopia; held title of King of Kings until he was shot during a battle with western invaders

Menelik II

one of two emperors of Ethiopia; took over after Yohannes IV died; defeated Italy and signed a treaty with them that recognized Ethiopia's independence

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