Vessel (usually refers to blood vessel).
Lymph, lymph tissue.
Yellowish, fatty plaque.
Electricity, electrical activity.
Instrument used to record; record.
Abnormal reduction in number.
Tumor composed of blood vessels.
Narrowing of a blood vessel.
Narrowing pertaining to aorta (narrowing of the aortic valve).
Hardening of the arteries.
Hardening of fatty plaque (deposited on the arterial wall).
Condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute).
Pain in the heart.
Enlargement of the heart.
Disease of the heart muscle.
Inflammation of the valves of the heart (valvulitis).
Inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart.
Deficiency of blood (flow).
Inflammation of the muscle of the heart.
Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart.
Inflammation of a vein.
Inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries.
Abnormal state of rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per min).
Inflammation of a vein associated with a clot.
Tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel).
Tumors of the bone marrow.
Abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells.
Abnormal condition of a (blood) clot.
(Blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein).
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
Disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection or malignancy).
Tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant).
Enlargement of the spleen.
Tumor of the thymus gland.
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction.
Ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall.
Chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle.
Any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern.
Atrial Fibrillation (AFib)
A cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria. The atria quiver instead of contracting, causing irregular ventricular response and the ejection of a reduced amount of blood. The blood that remains in the atria becomes static, increasing the risk of clot formation, which may lead to a stroke. Two types of AFib are paraoxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), which is intermittent, and chronic atrial fibrillation, which is sustained.
Sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the peridcardial cavity.
Coarctation Of The Aorta
Congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.
Congenital Heart Disease
Heart abnormality present at birth.
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
Inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
A condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; most often caused by coronary atherosclerosis (heart failure (HF)).
Obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis. Coronary occlusion can lead to acute myocardial infarction.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body. Most often occurs in the lower extremities. A clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
Hypertensive Heart Disease (HHD)
Disorder of the heart brought about by persistent high blood pressure.
Pain and discomfort in calf muscles while walking; a condition seen in occlusive artery disease.
Mitral Valve Stenosis
A narrowing of the mitral valve from scarring, usually caused by episodes of rheumatic fever.
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Death (necrosis) of a portion of the myocardium caused by lack of oxygen resulting from an interrupted blood supply (heart attack).
Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)
Disease of the arteries, other than those of the heart and brain, that affects blood circulation. The most common symptom is intermittent claudication.
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Damage to the heart muscle or heart valves caused by one or more episodes of rheumatic fever.
Distended or tortuous veins usually found in the lower extremities.
Reduction in the amount of the hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
Blood clot or foreign material that enters the bloodstream and moves until it lodges at another point in the circulation.
Inherited bleeding disease most commonly caused by a deficiency of the coagulation factor VIII.
Malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow.
Malignant disorder of the lymphatic tissue characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually beginning in the cervical nodes.
An acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, fatigue, and fever. The disease affects mostly young people and is usually transmitted by saliva.
Surgical repair of a blood vessel.
Excision of fatty plaque (from a blocked artery using a specialized catheter and a rotary cutter).
Excision within the artery (excision of plaque from the arterial wall).
Surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the outer layer (pericardial sac) (used to treat cardiac tamponade).
Excision of a vein).
Incision into a vein (to remove blood or to give blood or intravenous fluids) (venipuncture).
Surgical repair of a valve (cardiac or venous).
Excision of the spleen.
Surgical fixation of the spleen.
Excision of the thymus gland.
Surgical excision of an aneurysm.
Atrial Fibrillation Ablation
A procedure in which abnormal cells that trigger atrial fibrillation are destroyed by using radiofrequency energy.
Batter-powered apparatus implanted under the skin with leads placed on the heart or in the chamber of the heart.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)
Surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries.
A supportive scaffold device implanted in the coronary artery; used to prevent closure of the artery after angioplasty or atherectomy.
Surgical removal of an embolus or clot (usually with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon beyond the clot, then pulling the balloon back to the incision and bringing the clot with it).
Surgery to establish an alternate route from femoral artery to popliteal artery to bypass an obstruction.
Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator (ICD)
A device implanted in the body that continuously monitors the heart rhythm. If life-threatening arrhythmias occur, the device delivers an electric shock to convert the arrhythmia back to a normal rhythm.
Intracoronary Thrombolytic Therapy
An injection of an intravenous medication to dissolve blood clots in coronary (blood) vessels.
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)
Procedure in which a balloon is passed through a blood vessel into a coronary artery to the area where plaque is formed. Inflation of the balloon compresses the plaque against the vessel wall, expanding the inner diameter of the blood vessel, which allows the blood to circulate more freely (balloon angioplasty).
Bone Marrow Aspiration
A syringe is used to aspirate a sample of the liquid portion of the bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
A needle puncture to obtain a sample of bone marrow, usually from the ilium, for study; used to diagnose, stage, and monitor disease and condition of the blood cells.
Bone Marrow Transplant
Infusion of normal bone marrow cells from a donor with matching cells and tissue to a recipient with a certain type of leukemia or anemia.
Radiographic imaging of blood vessels.
Instrument used for visual examination of a blood vessel.
Visual examination of a blood vessel.
Radiographic image of the aorta (after an injection of contrast media).
Radiographic image of an artery (after an injection of contrast media).
Radiographic image of a vein (after an injection of contrast media).
Radiographic imaging of a vein (after an injection of contrast media).
Record of the heart (structure and motion) using sound (used to detect valvular disease and evaluate heart function.
Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)
Record of the electrical activity of the heart.
Instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart.
Process of recording the electrical activity of the heart.
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
A process of digital radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that "subtracts" or removes structures not being studied.
A study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels; used to assess intermittent claudication, deep vein thrombosis, and other blood flow abnormalities.
Exercise Stress Test
A study that evaluates cardiac function during physical stress by riding a bike or walking on a treadmill.
Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
A nuclear medicine scan that visualizes the heart from several different angles. A tracer substance such as sestamibi or thallium is injected intravenously. The SPECT scanner creates images from the tracer absorbed by the body tissues. It is used to assess damage to cardiac tissue.
A nuclear medicine test used to diagnose coronary artery disease and assess revascularization after coronary artery bypass surgery. Thallium, a radioactive isotope, is injected into the body intravenously; a radiation detector is placed over the heart and images are recorded. Thallium is taken up by the normal myocardial cells, but not in ischemia or infarction. These areas are identified as "cold" spots on the images produced. Thallium testing can be performed when the patient is at rest or it can be part of a stress test.
Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE)
An ultrasound test that examines cardiac function and structure by using an ultrasound probe placed in the esophagus, which provides views of the heart structures.
An examination to determine the condition of the heart and surrounding blood vessels. A catheter is passed into the heart through a blood vessel and is used to record pressures and inject a contrast medium, enabling the visualization of the coronary arteries, great vessels, and the heart chambers; used most frequently to evaluate chest pain and coronary artery disease (coronary angiography).
Impedance Plethysmography (IPG)
Measures venous flow of the extremities with a plethysmograph to detect clots by measuring changes in blood volume and resistance (impedance) in the vein; used to detect deep vein thrombosis.
Hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope.
Blood Pressure (BP)
Pressure exerted by the blood against the blood vessel walls.
Tapping of a body surface with the fingers to determine the density of the part beneath.
The number of times per minute the heartbeat is felt of the arterial wall.
Device used for measuring blood pressure.
An instrument used to hear internal body sounds; used for performing auscultation and blood pressure measurement.
C-reactive Protein (CRP)
A blood test to measure the amount of C-reactive protein in the blood, which, when elevated, indicates inflammation in the body. It is sometimes used in assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK)
A blood test used to measure the level of creatine phosphokinase, an enzyme of heart and skeletal muscle released into the blood after muscle injury or necrosis.
A blood test used to measure the amount of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid that, if elevated, may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
A blood test used to measure the amount of lipids in a sample of blood. This test is used to evaluate the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and to monitor therapy of existing disease. Results provide levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglycerides.
A blood test that measures troponin, a heart muscle enzyme. Troponins are released into the blood approximately 3 hours after necrosis of the heart muscle and may remain elevated from 7 to 10 days.
Blood test to determine the time it takes for blood to form a clot.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) And Differential Count (Diff)
Basic blood screening that measures hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number and morphology (size and shape), leukocyte count, and white blood cell differential (types of white blood cells) and platelet count. The test is automated, thus done easily and rapidly, and provides a tremendous amount of information about the blood.
A blood test to measure the volume and number of red blood cells. It is used in the diagnosis and evaluation of anemic patients.
Blood test used to determine the concentration of oxygen-carrying components (hemoglobin) in red blood cells.
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Blood test used to determine certain coagulation activity defects and to monitor anticoagulation therapy for patients taking Coumadin, an oral anticoagulant medication.
Pertaining to the atrium and ventricle.
Pertaining to the heart.
Originating in the heart.
Physician who studies and treats diseases of the heart.
Study of the heart (branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the heart and blood vessels).
Condition of (body) temperature that is below (normal sometimes induced for various surgical procedures, such as bypass surgery).
Pertaining to within the vein.
Physician who studies and treats diseases of the veins.
Study of veins (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the veins).
Physician who studies and treats diseases of the blood.
Study of blood (a branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood).
Formation of blood (cells).
Dissolution of (red) blood (cells).
Stoppage of bleeding.
Formation of bone marrow.
Removal of plasma (from withdrawn blood).
Dissolution of a clot.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Emergency procedure consisting of artificial ventilation and external cardiac massage.
Application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm.
Phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax between contractions.
Occurring outside the body.
Escape of blood from the blood vessel into the tissue.
Rapid, quivering, noncoordinated contractions of the atria and ventricles.
A short-duration humming sound of cardiac or vascular origin.
Excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood; associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease.
Excessive amount of fats (triglycerides and cholesterol) in the blood.
Blood pressure that is above normal (greater than 140/90).
Excessive mount of triglycerides in the blood; associated with heightened risk of cardiovascular disease.
Blood pressure that is below normal (less than 90/60).
Fats and fatlike substances that serve as a source of fuel in the body and are an important constituent of cell structure.
Space within a tubular part or organ, such as the space within a blood vessel.
To close tightly, to block.
Phase in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract.
Agent or nerve that narrows the blood vessels.
Agent or nerve that enlarges the blood vessels.
Puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion.
Agent that slows the clotting process.
Abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood.
Rapid loss of blood, as in bleeding.
An environmental substance capable of producing an immediate hypersensitivity in the body (allergen).
A physician who studies and treats allergic conditions.
An exaggerated, life-threatening reaction a previously encountered antigen such as bee venom, peanuts, or latex. Symptoms range from mild, with patients experiencing hives or sneezing, to sever symptoms such as drop in blood pressure and blockage of the airway, which can lead to death within minutes (anaphylactic shock).
A drug that targets microorganisms to kill or halt growth or replication.
A substance produced by lymphocytes that inactivates or destroys antigens (immunoglobulin).
A substance that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body.
A disease caused by the body's inability to distinguish its own cells from foreign bodies, thus producing antibodies that attack its own tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are examples.
Being resistant to specific invading pathogens.
Deficient immune response caused by the immune system dysfunction brought on by disease or immunosuppressive drugs.
A physician who studies and treats immune system disorders.
The branch of medicine dealing with immune system disorders.
The invasion of pathogens in body tissue. An infection may remain localized if the body's defense mechanisms are effective. If the infection persists it may become acute, subacute, or chronic. A systemic infection occurs when the pathogen causing a local infection gains access to the vascular or lymphatic system and becomes disseminated throughout the body.
A process in which some of the white blood cells destroy the invading microorganism and old cells.
A suspension of inactivated microorganisms administered by injection, mouth, or nasal spray to prevent infectious diseases by inducing immunity.
Acute coronary syndrome.
Coronary artery bypass graft.
Coronary artery disease.
CBC and Diff
Complete blood count and differential.
Coronary care unit.
Congestive heart failure.
Digital subtraction angiography.
Deep vein thrombosis.
Hypertensive heart disease.
Implantable cardiac defibrillator.
Peripheral arterial disease.
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
Red blood cell (erythrocyte).
Single-photon emission computed tomography.
White blood cell (leukocyte).