anatomy and physiology test chapter 1

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cephalic

head

cranial

skull

ophthalmic

eyes

buccal

cheeks

oral

mouth

frontal

forehead

thoracic (pectoral)

chest

sternal

sternum

mammary

pectorals

costal

ribs

abdominal (celiac)

stomach

pelvic

pelvis

brachial

bicep

antecubital

inner elbow

antebrachial (cubital)

forearm

carpal

wrist

palmar

palm of hand

umbilical

belly button

inguinal (groin)

crotch

leg (crural)

lower leg (below knee)

tarsal

ankle

occipital

back of skull

cervical

neck

axillary

armpit

vertebral

spine

lumbar

lower back

sacral

butt crack

gluteal

butt cheek

perineal

back part of groin

femoral

thigh

popliteal

back of knee

cutaneous

skin

pedal

foot

plantar

sole of foot

dorsal cavity (2 cavities)

spinal cavity, cranial cavity

ventral cavity (2 cavities)

thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity (pelvic and abdominal cavities)

2 major cavities in the body

dorsal (smaller), ventral (larger)

thoracic cavity (where is it)

chest to the diaphragm (heart, lungs, esophagus, and trachea)

transverse plane

in half top and bottom

saggital

in half right and left

frontal (coronal plane)

in half like a sub sandwich (where your clothes cut your body in half)

umbilical region of the abdomen

center (around bellybutton)

epigastric region of the abdomen

above the bellybutton (above the umbilical region)

hypogastric region

below the bellybutton (below the umbilical region). pelvic region

right/left iliac regions

right/left sides of the pelvis (if you are looking at the picture it is flipped. right iliac on your left side looking at it and left iliac on your right side looking at it)

right/left hypochondriac regions

right and left sides of the ribs (if you are looking at the picture it is flipped. right hypochondriac on your left side looking at it and left hypochondriac on your right side looking at it)

4 quadrants of the body

cut in 4 at the bellybutton. transversal and saggital cuts. right upper (when looking at the picture it is on your left), left upper (same for this one--on right when looking at it), right lower, left lower

anterior

closer to the front of the body

posterior

closer to the back of the body

superior

above

inferior

below

superficial

closer to the surface (skin)

deep

deeper inside (farther away from skin)

proximal

closer to the trunk of the body

distal

farther away from the trunk of the body

digital

fingers

stressor

something that disrupts homeostasis in the body

homeostasis

the balance in temperature, pressure, water/oxygen levels etc. that need to be maintained in the body. not maintaining homeostasis can lead to illness and even death

negative feedback

returns the body to homeostasis

positive feedback

stimulate or amplify changes (pregnancy--uterus gets larger etc)

medial

closer to the middle of the body

lateral

closer to the sides of the body

11 organ systems

integumentary, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, lymphatic, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, urinary, nervous, reproductive

integumentary system

skin, hair, nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. covers and protects the body; regulates temperature

digestive system

mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas. ingests and digests food; absorbs nutrients into blood

cardiovascular system

heart, blood vessels, blood. transports material from one part of the body to another; defends against disease

respiratory system

air passageways' lungs. exchanges gases between blood and external environment

lymphatic system

lymph, lymph vessels, lymphoid organs. returns tissue fluid to the blood; defends against disease

nervous system

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense receptors. coordinates body activities; receives and transmits stimuli

skeletal system

bones, cartilage, ligaments. provides body framework and support; protects; attaches muscles to bones; provides calcium storage

muscular system

muscles. produces movement; maintains posture; provides heat

reproductive system

testes; ovaries; accessory structures. reproduction (duh)

endocrine system

pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, other ductless glands. regulates metabolic activities and body chemistry

urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra. excretes metabolic wastes; regulates fluid balance and acid-base balance

10 basic processes of life

organization, metabolism, responsiveness, movement, and reproduction

organization

division of labor; each thing works together to keep the body healthy

metabolism

all of the chemical reactions that occur in the body. catabolism and anabolism

catabolism

complex substances are broken down into simpler ones and energy is released (digestion)

anabolism

complex substances are built up by simpler ones. requires energy

responsiveness

irritability (discomfort); detecting changes in the external or internal environment and reacting to that change

movement

cellular level: molecules move from one place to another. blood moves to different parts of the body

contractility

ability of muscles to create movement

conductivity

ability to transmit a stimulus or information from one point to another

reproduction

baby. formation of new cells to replace old ones and for growth (cellular reproduction)

growth

increase in size (either the cells get larger or multiply). anabolic processes must occur at a faster rate than catabolic for this to happen

differentiation

unspecialized cells change into specialized cells with distinctive structural and functional characteristics. through this cells develop into tissues and then into organs

respiration

exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells and the external environment

digestion

breaking down complex foods into simple molecules to be absorbed into the blood and used by the body

excretion

removes waste products of digestion and metabolism

5 physical factors from the environment needed for life

water. 60% of us is water. provides a medium in which chemical reactions occur, transports substances, and helps to regulate temperature

oxygen

necessary for the metabolic actions that provide energy

nutrients

carbs, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. come from the foods we eat. supply chemicals the body needs for energy and to make new tissues

heat

form of energy. necessary to keep the chemical reactions in the body proceeding at an appropriate rate. to a point, the more heat the faster the reaction.

pressure

breathing. hydrostatic pressure: force applied by fluids (blood pressure) essential for the circulation of blood.

visceral

internal organs

parietal

wall of a body cavity

pathology

study of disease

radiology

study of structure and function within the body using x rays

cytology

study of cellular structure

histology

study of tissues

pharmacology

how drugs affect the body

embryology

prenatal development

surgical anatomy

anatomical landmarks important during surgery

gross anatomy

macroscopic structure (basic anatomy)

surface anatomy

external features

systemic anatomy

body systems (structure)

regional anatomy

stuff within that region (head)

cellular physiology

individual cells and how they work

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