Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

independent variable

a factor that causes a change in another variable, called the dependent variable

functional analysis

a theoretical framework in society is viewed as composed of various, each with a function that, when fulfilled contributes to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism and structural functionalism

positivism

the application of the scientifc world to the social world; the use of scientific method to test & create scientific theory, created by August Compte

conflict theory

the theorectical framework in which society is viewed as composed groups competing for scarce resources

survey

data collection of data by having people answer a series of questions, must contain a representative sample, & care taken with the wording of the questions

reliability

the extent to which research produces consistent results

variables

research factors that vary or change from one person or situation to another, a measurabel trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different characteristics

class conflict

Karl Max's term for the struggle between capitalists and workers

symbolic interaction

a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people used to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another; how we define ourseles, how others define us and we define others

dependent variable

a factor that is change by an independent variable

respondents

people who respond to a survey, either in interviews of by self administered questionaires

validity

the extent to which an operational definition measures what is was intended to measure

correlation

relationship between 2 variables in which a change in one coincides with change in another

quantitative research

this type of research primarily presents data in numerical form

qualitative research

this type of research relies on what is seen in the field as opposed to statistical data

Hawthorne Effect

the unintended influence that researchers have on their subjects

reliability

the extent to which a measure produces consistent results

functionalism

society is like an organism of inter related parts

microsociology

the study of small groups or our everyday experiences

macrosociology

the study of large scale phenomena for the entire civilization

social reform

believe that we study sociology to learn and improve society; Compte, Durkheim and Marx

social analysis

believe that we study and analyze but do not impose our will on it; Weber, Spenser

Herbert Spenser

-social darwinism
-believed that we should not interfere with natural evolution of society ie the strong will survive, and that society would naturally evolve from lower to higher form. By helping the poor we affect the natural evolution of society

Max Weber

-Protestant Ethic, religion is the central force for social change

Karl Marx

-social reformer
-Communism sharing of the nation's wealth, Govt owned everything vs capitalism and private ownership
-society was composed of 2 groups fighting for natural resoucres; battle between the have and have nots

bourgeosie

control class of capitalist (factory owners)

protelariat

exploited class, great mass of workers
-Marx believed that this struggle would create a worker's revolution so that each would work to his ability & receive according to his needs

Auguste Compte

-early founder of sociology
-was the first to use positivism
-social reformer

Emile Durkheim

-social integration
-studied the suicide rates in catholics
-key principle human behavior cannot be simply on individual terms, we must examine the social forces that affect people

Explain the relationship between the Protestant Ethic and the rise of capitalism?

a. Protestants believed in the concept of predetermination, the belief that your fate regarding heaven/hell is predetermined before you are born
b. Protestantism began to undermine the people's emotional security because they wanted to know their outcome
c. They began to look for signs that they were favored by God, and would go to heaven
d. They postulated that God would not want the favored to suffer on earth, and began to equate financial success w/ the sign that they were the chosen ones
e. working harder would bring wealth, would be a sign that they were favored thus chosen and would go to heaven begat capitalism.

Choose between functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interaction and explain how these would explain the rise in divorce?

Conflict theory states that groups of people are in competition for scarce natural resources.
During war times, men often went off to battle leaving the women to have to provide for their families by assuming the role of the man and working. When the men returned from battle, the role of the man vs women was in conflict, women began to discover that they didn't need a man to be the provider if they were in bad relationships, or needs were being met.

Émile Durkheim developed a highly original theory about the relationship between homicide and social factors.
A) True
B) False

false, suicide

Sociology owes credit to Max Weber for a key conceptual tool called anomie.
A) True
B) False

false, Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie, the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior is ineffective. Anomie increases the likelihood of alienation, loneliness, and isolation.

In Karl Marx's analysis, social inequality is determined by men and women who clash in pursuit of their own interests.
A) True
B) False

false, In Karl Marx's analysis, social inequality is determined by ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources.

Microsociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations.
A) True
B) False

false, Macrosociology concentrates on large-scale phenomena or entire civilizations. Microsociology stresses the study of small groups.

The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability.
A) True
B) False

true; The functionalist perspective does emphasize the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. This perspective views society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival.

Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position.
A) True
B) False

true; Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position. Their emphasis on social change and the redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more "radical" and "activist" than functionalists.

Which sociologist introduced the concept of the sociological imagination?
A) Max Weber
B) Auguste Comte
C) Harriet Martineau
D) Wright Mills

B) Auguste Comte

Émile Durkheim's research suggested that
A) Catholics had much higher suicide rates than Protestants.
B) there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.
C) civilians were more likely than soldiers to take their own lives.
D) suicide is a solitary act, unrelated to group life.

B) there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution.

Which sociologist introduced the concept of anomie to the discipline?
A) Max Weber
B) Herbert Spencer
C) Émile Durkheim
D) Wright Mills

C) Émile Durkheim

The term anomie refers to
A) a construct, or a made-up model, that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated.
B) the study of small groups.
C) the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
D) a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.

C) the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.

Which sociological perspective emphasizes the way in which the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability?
A) conflict perspective
B) interactionist perspective
C) microsociology
D) functionalist perspective

D) functionalist perspective

Which sociological perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between competing groups?
A) conflict perspective
B) interactionist perspective
C) microsociology
D) functionalist perspective

A) conflict perspective

In the 1990s, the workings of juries became a subject of public scrutiny. A sociologist would be most likely to use which perspective to gain a better understanding of the small-group setting of a jury deliberation room?
A) interactionist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) functionalist perspective
D) macrosociology

A) interactionist perspective

Which theoretical perspective would examine sports on the microlevel by focusing on how day-to-day social behavior is shaped by the distinctive norms, values, and demands of the world of sports?
A) functionalist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) interactionist perspective
D) both A and B

C) interactionist perspective

Within sociology, a (an) ____________ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
A) theory
B) hypothesis
C) operational definition
D) correlation

A) theory

Thinking of society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival is a reflection of which theoretical perspective?
A) interactionist perspective
B) functionalist perspective
C) conflict perspective
D) feminist perspective

B) functionalist perspective

The __________ perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole.
A) conflict
B) functionalist
C) interactionist
D) feminist

C) interactionist

According to the text, which of the major theoretical perspectives views sports as an "opiate" that encourages people to seek a temporary fix rather than focus on personal problems?
A) functionalist perspective
B) conflict perspective
C) interactionist perspective
D) feminist perspective

B) conflict perspective

The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the
A) dependent variable.
B) hypothetical variable.
C) correlation variable.
D) independent variable.

D) independent variable.

A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, is known as a (an)
A) observation.
B) ethnography.
C) experiment.
D) survey.

D) survey.

A measurable trait or characteristic that is subject to change under different conditions is referred to as a (an)
A) operational definition.
B) theory.
C) hypothesis.
D) variable.

D) variable.

A correlation exists when
A) one variable causes something to occur in another variable.
B) two or more variables are causally related.
C) a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable.
D) a negative relationship exists between two variables.

C) a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable.

The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study is termed
A) reliability.
B) validity.
C) sampling representativeness.
D) predictability.

B) validity.

Which of the following terms is used to refer to subjects of observational research who deviate from their typical behavior because they realize that they are under observation?
A) Hawthorne effect
B) causal logic
C) secondary analysis
D) value neutrality

A) Hawthorne effect

The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the dependent variable.
A) True
B) False

B) False The variable hypothesized to cause or influence another is called the independent variable. The action of the dependent variable "depends" on the influence of the independent variable.

The scientific method requires that research results be both valid and reliable. Reliability refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
A) True
B) False

A) True Reliability refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results. Validity refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.

Sociologists use the term reliability to refer to the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects.
A) True
B) False

B) False Sociologists use the term Hawthorne effect to refer to the unintended influence that observers of experiments can have on their subjects.

Researchers conducting an experiment assign the subjects to one of two groups. These groups are called the dependent and independent groups.
A) True
B) False

B) False Researchers conducting an experiment assign the subjects to one of two groups. These groups are called the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group is exposed to an independent variable; the control group is not.

A relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is referred to as causality.
A) True
B) False

B) False A relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is referred to as a correlation.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set