Microbiology: Microbial World & You (Ch 2, Tortora) - Chemical Principles

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Dr. Scott Quinton's class at Maple Woods; covers chemical properties

chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule

carbon skeleton

specific group of atoms most commonly involved in chemical reactions and responsible for most of the characteristic chemical properties and many of the physical properties of a particular organic compound

functional groups

the study of interactions between atoms and molecules


the smallest unit of matter that enters into chemical reactions


2 or more atoms, joined together


a combination of 2 or more different types of atoms


negatively charged particles located outside the nucleus of an atom


positively charged particles located in the nucleus of an atom


uncharged / oppositely charged particles located in the nucleus of an atom


bonds that hold the subatomic bonds of the nucleus of an atom together

nuclear bonds

the number of protons

the element number is equal to _______

electrons, an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons; it is determined by the number of electrons


one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons


compounds with the same chemical formula but different structures or arrangements


clouds of electrons located outside the nucleus of an atom

electrons shells

List the subatomic particles

neutrons, protons & electrons

Which elements make up the majority of living organisms?


The number of electrons found in the outer-most shell of an atom

valence electrons

What is the capacity of the following electron shells? L1, L2, L3, L4

L1 = 2
L2 = 8
L3 = 8
L4 = 16

How is atomic weight calculated?

Number of protons plus the number of neutrons

What is meant by Bond Angles?

describes the shape of a compound or atom

What is meant by Volume when referring to atomic particles?

the distance an electron is from its nucleus

How does carbon-14 differ from carbon-12?

What is the atomic number of each carbon atom?

What is the atomic weight of each?

These are isotopes, which have varied numbers of neutrons around their nuclei. They will always have the same number of protons (6) Carbon-14 has 8 neutrons (=14 - 6); carbon-12 has 6 neutrons.

Carbon-14 atomic number (or proton number) is 6; same for Carbon-12

Carbon-14 atomic weight is (6p+8n=14); Carbon-12 atomic weight 9s (6p+6n=12)

a positively or negatively charged atom


This is force of attraction between atoms based on opposite charges

ionic bonds

a positively charged ion


a negatively charged ion


very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule

hydrogen bonds

a chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms

covalent bonds

the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule

molecular weight

a unit of measurement used in laboratories, describes the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams


1 mole H2O
H = 1
O = 16
[(2x1) + 16] = 18 grams

what is the weight of one mole of water?

What type of reaction is this?

A + B ----> AB

synthesis reaction or condensation reactions

What type of reaction is this?

AB -----> A + B

decomposition reaction

pathways of synthesis reactions in living organisms,
for example the combining of sugar molecules to form starch; and amino acids to form proteins
("make things bigger")

anabolic reactions or anabolism

pathways of breaking down or decomposition reactions in living organisms,
for example the use of sucrose in the body involves breaking it down into simpler sugars (glucose & fructose)
("break things down")

catabolic reactions or catabolism

What type of reaction is this?

AB + CD ---> AD + BC

exchange reaction

What type of reaction is this?
HClO + Na2SO3 ----> Na2SO4 + HCl

exchange reaction

What are the properties of water that are important to living systems?

1. Can form 4 hydrogen bonds
2. Excellent Solvent
3. Reactant or Product in many reactions
4. Temperature Buffer

What is meant by "the polarity of water makes it cohesive"?

water is a polar molecule, this property results in a strong attraction between water molecules.

What is meant by "the polarity of water makes it an excellent solvent"?

the negative pole of the water molecule is attracted to the positive pole of other molecules (solutes) and the positive pole is attracted to the negative pole of those same solutes.

This means that substances held together by ionic bonds will tend to dissociate into separate cations and anions in water. The molecules will become surrounded by the water (dissolving it)

What is meant by "water is a reactant or product in many chemical reactions"?

Its polarity facilitates the splitting and rejoining of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-).

What is meant by "water is an excellent temperature buffer"?

the polarity of water gives it relatively strong hydrogen bonds, requiring a great deal of heat to increase its temperature and a great loss of heat to decrease the temp.

On what type of scale is pH expressed?

reverse logarithmic

compounds that help keep the pH from drastically changing


substances that when dissociated, will give off many H+ ions


substances that when dissociated, will give off many OH- ions


compounds contain carbon and hydrogen

organic compounds

reactions allowing for life; a state of change


why are synthesis reactions also called "condensation reactions"?

they usually include H2O as one of their products

why are decomposition reactions also called "hydrolysis reactions"?

they usually require water to occur

reactions that absorb energy

endergonic reactions

reactions that release energy

exergonic reactions

Which of the following is an endergonic and an exergonic reaction?
a) anabolism
b) catabolism

a) anabolism is an endergonic reaction
b) catabolism is an exergonic reaction

a monomer becomes a polymer via __________

or fill in the blank

monomer __________> polymer

dehydration synthesis

True/False: Enzymes are catalysts


What is the basic action of enzymes?

Makes a reaction energetically favorable

reactions that require water to occur, "burn up" water in the process, water will dissociate into H+ and OH-

hydrolysis reaction

what does the abbreviation pH stand for?

Potential (power) of Hydrogen

substances that dissociate in water into cations and anions, neither of which are H+ or OH-


the chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule

carbon skeleton

the group of elements attached to the carbon skeleton in an organic molecule that is primarily responsible for the chemical properties of that compound

functional group





















A) dehydration synthesis
B) hydrolysis

Label A & B

the large and diverse group of organic compounds that include sugars and starches;
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (hydrogen and oxygen are in a 2:1 ratio)


the primary function of carbohydrates is ____


these fats provide the structure of cell membranes and provide some energy storage; they are water insoluble


chemicals containing 4 interconnected carbon rings, act to separate fatty acid chains and prevent packing that would harden plasma membranes at low temperatures


organic molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (and somtimes sulfur); they are the essential ingredient to cell structure and function


the building blocks of proteins

amino acids

these bonds are formed through hydration synthesis, and allow for amino acids to link together

peptide bonds

the ___ structure of proteins details the sequence of amino acids


the ___ structure of proteins details the shape (helices or pleats)


the ___ structure of proteins details the overall 3-D structure of a polypeptide


the ___ structure of proteins details the shape of 2 or more polypeptide chains in their folded shape


DNA and RNA are ___ acids


what are the nitrogen bases of DNA and RNA?

DNA: A, T, C, G
RNA: A, U, C, G

the energy currency; stores chemical energy for various cellular activities


Lab Question:
Explain the purpose of doing a slant subculture.

a subculture is a sample of the culture taken from an isolated colony transferred and grown in its own separate container. this allows for easier study and organization of bacterial isolates; also allows you to continue to use the original culture for multiple studies

Lab Question:
What is the importance of generated isolated bacterial colonies?

to separate a single microbe from a mixed population of bacteria in order to grow a colony of that single bacteria. This allows for the study of causative agents of disease in isolation.

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