chapter 4

Created by dbink93 

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transport vesicles

where products of the er are shiped to

microbodies

bounded by single membrane

glyoxysomes

convert fats to sugers

contractile vacuole

pumps out excess water

thylakoids

flattend green sacs stacked up

granum

stack of thylakoids

stroma

thick fluid surrounding thylakoids

intermembrane space

region between inner and outer membranes

cristae

increases surface area to enhance ATP production

mitochondrial matrix

most respiration here

organelle

structure with a specialized function in a cell

phagocytosis

cellular "eating"

eukaryotic

cytoplasm, contain organelles, found in plants and animals

prokaryotic

no membrane, ribosomes and DNA, found in bactera and archea

which ribosomes makes proteins to be exported out

bound ribosomes- attatched to endoplasmic reticulum

which ribosomes make proteins for cell use

free ribosomes- suspended in cytosol

examples of lysomal diseases

pompe's disease- liver cant break down polysaccharide glycogen and tay-sachs- overload of lipids in nervous system

nuclear envalope

seperating nucleus from cytoplasm

chromatin

undivided chromosomes

nucleolus

synthesis of ribosomes

cilia

short finger like projections used for locomotion

cytosol

semi fluid medium

cytoplasmic streaming

cytoplasm flows in a certain direction

3 parts of the cytoskeleton

microtubule, intermediate filament, microfilament

what is the difference between magnification and resolution

magnification makes it bigger resolution makes it clearer

what are the differences in TEM and SEM

sem uses a beam to scan the surface of a cell and tem shoots a beam of light through the specimen

differenced between plasma membrane and cell wall

cell wall maintence of cell shape and skeletal support and plasma membrane keeps stuff from coming in and leaving

what is the route for membrane construction in the cell

nucleus to ribosomes to rough er to golgi apparatus to transport vacuoles to plasma membrane back to transport vacuoles

layers of cell wall

there is a thin, flexible primary cell wall (btwn the 2 cell walls is the middle lamella - like glue) (pectin)

3 junctions compared to plasmodesmata

tight junctions-binds cells together Anchoring junctions - attach adjacent cells to each other to stretch Gap junctions - allow water and other small molecules to flow between neighboring cells (similar to plasmodesmata in plants) plasmodesmata
- channels in the cell wall
- strands of cytoplasm connect 1 cell to another

how does plant cell grow larger

photosynthesis

you would expect a cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus to

secrete a lot of material

stores calcium, important in muscle contraction?

smooth er

a plant cell was biologically engineered containing radioactive nucleotides. Later examination of the cell showed the radioactivity to be concentrated in the

nucleus

if the nucleus is a cell's control center and chloroplasts its solar collectors, which of the following might be called the cell's combination food processor and garbage disposal?

lysosome

the internal skeleton of a cell is composed of

microtubules,intermediate filaments, and microfilaments

why is a cell limited by size?

its need for enough surface area for exchange with its environment

which organelle matches with its function?

central vacuole...storage

what organelles are involved in energy conversion

mitochondrion and chloroplast

to enter or leave the cell substances must pass through...

the plasma membrane

which group is involved in manufacturing substances needed by the cell?

ribosome, rough er, smooth er

what consist of prokaryotic cell

bacteria

what would not be considered part of a cell's cytoplasm

the nucleus

if a cell has ribosomes, a plasma membrane, a cell wall, and other parts, it would be from

oak tree

if a cells chromatin were damaged, the cell would

go out of control

dye injected into a cell might be able to enter an adjacent cell through a

plasmodesma

a mutant plant cell unable to manufacture cellulose would be unable to

build a cell wall

when elongated, tube-shaped cells from the lining of the intestine are treated with a certain chemical, the cells sag and become round blobs. the internal structures disrupted by this chemical are probably

microtubules

why has the electron microscope been particularly useful in studying bacteria?

bacteria are so small

a researcher made an interesting observation about a protein made by the rough er and eventually used to build a cells plasma membrane. the protein in the membrane was actually slightly different from the protein made in the er. the protein was probably changed in the

Golgi apparatus

if a cell has mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth er and other parts it would not be

a bacterium

tight junction

link animal cells in a leak proof sheet

plasmodesma

channel between plant cells

anchoring junction

connects animal cells into a strong sheet

cell wall

rigid cellulose covering of plant cell

gap juntion

channel between animal cells

extracellular matrix

sticky layer holds animal cells together

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