AP Human Geo Test on Chapter 2 & 3

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Major Population Cluster: Largest to 4th Largest

1. East Asia
2. South East Asia
3. Europe
4. North America

What are other agencies that gather data on the world population?

*World Bank
*United Nations
*Population Reference Bureau
( each have inconsistencies in their statistics)

What was Paul Ehrlich book "Population Bomb" about?

he warned that the worlds population was increasing too quickly and was outpacing our food production

What did " An Essay on the Principles of Population" say?

*that population was increasing faster than food production
*said that food grew linearly and population grew exponentially

Why was " An Essay on the Principles of Population" wrong?

*he did not predict that mercantilism, colonialism, and globalization would bring the world in closer contact and spread crops and farming methods

Who are the Malthusians?

followers of Malthus today that don't believe every detail, but are connected with population growth

What is rate on natural increase?

births-deaths over a period of time (years)

What is crude birth rate?

# of live births per year per thousand people in a population

What is crude death rate?

# of live deaths per year per thousand people

How is demographic change measured?

B-D+I-E (births-deaths+immigration-emigration)

Total Fertility Rate?

average # of births a woman will have over her lifetime

What is the replacement rate?

2.1 (a woman must have this many children for a population to grow)

Doubling Time?
How many years does it take for our population to double?

*time it takes for a population to double
*every 51 years; 80 million people added each year

Growth at a Regional Scale
China?
Japan?
Russia?
South America?
Wealthier Countries?
Economically Prosperous Countries?

*high growth rates are associated w/ low standing of women(no education, male dominant)
*China is world's largest but soon to take over is India
*Japan's pop is shrinking, along with other countries
*Russia is shrinking-horrible conditions (drug use, alcoholism, economics)lower births & raise deaths
*South America is experiencing significant reduction in natural population growth rates, whose rates were high a generation ago. Brazil is down 2.9 in the mid 1960s to 1.3% today
*Economically wealthier countries have a declining growth rates. Economically prosperous countries have high levels of education, later marriage, & family planning which lower the population growth. Russia decline population growth rates are due to social dislocation that has come in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union
Cultural traditions also influence rates, like the region has an impact on family planning

Population growth at the Local Scale
Sub-Saharan Africa?
Muslim countries?
India?

*most countries have variations within their borders
*population trends show that Sub-Saharan Africa's growth rate is higher than India in spite of the AIDS epidemic. Muslim countries of North Africa have the highest growth rates in the world
*India:pop explosion in the 50s:
-encouraged family planning(birth control, forced sterilization after 3 children for men)
-Led to riots & 22.5 million sterilizations
-TODAY: guns for sterilization program-2 sterilizations for shot gun, 5 for revolver
--landowners abusing laborers and sterilizing them for guns

Model?

what helps you predict whats going to happen countries

The Demographic Transitions of Great Britain

*in Great Britain, demographers used church data such as baptisms and funerals to study changes in the population
*to study natural increase, demographers calculate the CBR and the CDR
*before the Industrial Revolution, Great Britain experienced high birth rates and death rates w/ little difference b/w them. The result is low population growth.
*after industrialization, the death rate started to fall due to better medicines and standards of living, the population began to explode
*from 1800s thru 1950s pop continued to grow at a low but stable rate b/c the birth rats were still higher than death rates
*today both birth and deaths rates are low, stabilizing population growth

What do demographers call the sequence of stages in population?

the demographic transition model

Low Growth Rate

(low stationary) high birth rate & high death rate, little long term growth

High Growth Rate

(early expanding) high birth rate, declining death rate- large growth of population

Moderate Growth

(late expanding) declining birth rate, low death rate- slow continued pop growth

Low Growth

(high stationary) low birth rate, low death rate- very low rate of growth

Stages of Demographic Transition

1: epidemics, plagues, famines keep death rates high, lots of births required to survive
2: usually corresponds with technological development-medicines and farming improve
3: associated with urbanization and the economic cost of having more children(no longer needed for farming)
4: associated with highly educated and working women

Population Composition (3)

*shows the # of men, women, and their ages in a population
*population composition is easily displayed in a population pyramid
*pyramids allow geographers to take a quick look and tell the following:
-ages, growth rates, males females, wealth, cdr, cbr

Examples from discussion about population pyramids?

*rectangular shape: no developing
*large base: high birthrate
*if the pyramid is slimming in early then the death rate is dropping

Aging Populations(1)

*to replace the pop, TFR is 2.1

Infant Mortality Rate?

the # of deaths during a baby's first year of life per 1000

Child Mortality Rate?

the # of deaths during ages 1-5 per 1000 children

Life Expectancy?

average age that someone will remain alive in a country
-these reflect overall health of society
-AIDS has lowered life expectancy for Sub-Saharan Africa
- women live longer then men
-world's average was 68 for women and 64 for men

Dependency Ratio

* 0-14= dependents
* 15-64=workers
* 64+ dependents
DR= Number of dependents/ number of working-age x 100

Population Policies?

set up by governments with the purpose of influencing the overall growth rate or ethnic ratios within the pop

Expansive Population Policy & Example

*encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase
*may be done b/c populations are aging and declining
ex. Sweden suggested showing racier shows at night to promote raise birth rates

Eugenic Population Policy

*done in the past and are designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others
*Nazi Germany is an example
*Done covertly though unfair taxation, biased allocation of resources

Restrictive Population Policy

*seek to reduce the rate of natural increase
*most popular in today's societies
*China's one child policy is an example

Sex Ratio

*# of males per hundred females
*in general more males born than females
*males have higher death rates

Migration

*the movement of people across space
*speeds diffusion of ideas, intensifies spatial interaction, is linked to environment

Cyclic Movement

involves shorter periods away-begin at home and ends there as well

Activity Space

wherever you go

Nomadism

takes place across familiar landscapes year round

Periodic Movement

longer periods of time away, but still returning home

International migration

movement across country boarders

Emigration

leaving country

Immigration

entering country

Brain Dead

large scale emigration of talented people

Illegal Immigration

illegal migrating to a place w/o specific permission by that country

Intervening Obstacle

an environmental or cultural feature that hinders migrants

Internal Migration

within a single countries boarders
*today most people are leaving NE to move South and West
*US most mobile country(5 million from state to state & 35 million within state)

Forced Migration

involves the imposition of authority or power to force another to move
*Atlantic Slave Trade was the most devastating
-12 million to 30 million moved from Africa to the Americas
-Convicts were shipped from Britain to Australia in 1788
-Nazi Germany relocated millions of Jews from their homes in the 1930s

Voluntary Migration

weigh choices and make decisions to migrate or not

Push Factor

conditions to cause a person to want to LEAVE a place(high crime)

Pull Factor

circumstances that ATTRACT a person to a place(close to work, good yard)

Ernest Ravenstein's 5 Laws of Migration

1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration
-Haitians to FL
2. Majority of migrants move short distances
3. Migrants that move longer distances ten to choose big-city destinations
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

Distance Decay

migrants will move a shorter distance b/c they know more about what is near- says the further the point, the fewer you will find from that point

Step Migration

most migrants move from rural areas, to a village, town, city, then to large city

Intervening Opportunity

during the long migration the tenancy to find a location to suit you purposes before reaching the intended destination

Economic Conditions

poverty drives people to move away from their homes, also perceived opportunity in another country for work

Political Circumstances

oppressive regimes cause people to flee their homelands

Armed Conflict & Civil War

Yugoslavia's civil war drove out 3 million ; Rwanda's civil war caused 2 million people to flee in Hutu/ Tutsi

Technological Advances

transportation & communication make travel easier and people know more about far away places
*Kinship Links: strengthened ties b/w families
*Chain Migration: one family member moves, then brings other to the new locale
* Immigration Waves: swells of migration from one place to the other same destination

Power Relationships

(Gender, Ethnicity, Race, & Money)
*Women in the Middle East hire Southeast Asians to establish a position of power over them
*Carpet companies in Dalton, GA hire Mexican immigrants b/c they perceive them to be hardworking

Global Migration Flows

before 1500- Random-global scale migration
1800's-colonization w/ explorers

Regional Migration Flows

economic opportunities European colonists brought:
*Islands of Development:
-most was based on trade so people settled on coasts and cities
-Chinese moved to cities throughout SE Asia to work during colonialism
-Within West Africa, oil-producing areas of Nigeria are islands of development. Poor people from Togo, Benin, and Ghana flocked there for jobs and were later expelled by the Nigerian gov't

Islands of Development

isolated areas of development-in a port city usually

Where did the Jewish Immigrants return to?

they returned to Israel when the reconnection of cultural groups were reconnected

Conflict and War of Migrants

*15 million Germans moved to E. Germany after WWII, almost 8 million others left Europe altogether
*1959 Fidel Castro took control of Cuba and began establishing a communist gov't. Cuban migration soared and the US gov't formalized the Cuban Airlift for those who desired to escape communism. MAny settled in the Miami area. Dade County is bicultural and bilingual.
*Later the wet-foot dry foot policy was adopted

National Migration Flows

*within USA-westward movement throughout history
-after WWII and Civil War, northward movement for African Americans for work
-after 197's, trend, moving people back south after Civil Rights Movement

Guest Workers

*Europe brought so many people in WWII that they brought temporary workers called guest workers into their countries-problem was that most stayed!
*They are legal immigrants who have work visas (usually short term)
*They are often abused by their employers b/c they are unaware of their rights
*as the need for labor has declined host countries have tried to send them back (Nigeria). In pulled 30,000 Indonesian working in the MIddle East
*Guest Workers alter the cultural landscape of the region; building temples, mosques, restaurants, grocery stores, shops, and services industries

Large Scale Population Movements

can create problems (especially when forced by conflict)

UNHCR

(United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees)
*support refugees
*fund relief efforts
*negotiates with gov't

What did the UNHCR do in 2007?

they reported 11.4 million refugees(not including Palestinians in Jordan and Syria)

Who are the IDPs?

internally displaced persons
*people who have been displaced within their own countries(vicitms of Hurricane Katrina) but do not cross interantional borders as they flee

Refugees

a person who has a well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion,nationality,membership of a particular social group or political opinion

What's wrong with the definition of refugees?

*the # is in dispute, probably higher
*"well founded" leaves alot of room for interpretation
*refugees often flee to a remote area, not counted
gov'ts sometimes manipulate the #s
*biggest problem with UN definition is with internal refugees(intranational refugees)
*if you qualify as a refugee, you get some assistance and qualify for asylum

Characterisitics of a Refugee:

1) most only take personal items that they can carry
2) move by foot, boat, bike, etc-(not using modern technology, not many resources)
3) do not have many offical documents (passport,ID)

Regions of Dislocation

1) Sub-Saharan Africa
a. Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda-civil war causing many refugees
b.Sudan has the worst refugee crisis in Africa today. Tensions have risen between Arab Muslims in the north and African Christians and animists to the south
2) North Africa and SW Asia
a. Kurds, Palestinians, Afgans- Iraq tried to nerve gas and kill its Kurd minority
b. The latest civil war in Iraq has generated 2 million refugees that are living in neighboring Syria and Jordan

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