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Plato

gave first idea of psycology...
"know thy self"

introspection

looking within yourself

earliest times

began with thought that people act witht rules, seek pleasure, hate pain

middle ages

thought confusion and agitation meant possesion of demon (would throw person in lake, if they came up they were possesed-died either way)

1500s-1700s

revolution of all science.. moved from religion to reason.. people had evidece to support behavior

Wilhelm Wundt

1st psycologist with actual lab... founded structuralism

structuralism

the basic elements of conscious decisions

objective sensations

something you feel/sense from the outside... brings up memories when doing things

subjective feelings

emotional responses and mental images.. brings up feelings

William James

came up with functionalism

functionalism

how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environments

behaviorism

study of observable behavior

John B. Watson

came up with behaviorism

B.F. Skinner

came up with behavioralism

behavioralism

if you are constantly rewarded for your behavior, you will keep doing it

Sigmund Freud

came up with psycoanalysis (dreaming)

psycoanalysis

the importance of unconscious motives and internal conflicts determining human behavior (dreaming & what it means)

sensation

stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory info to the central nervous system

sensory organs

eyes, skin, brain, ears, mouth, tongue

perception

psycological process in which sensation is interpreted.. reflects experience

absolute threshold

weakest amount of stimulants that can be sensed.... ex: hearing test

difference threshold

smallest amount of difference you can sense in order to distinguish between stimuli (colors, sounds, small diff.)

single detection theory

takes into account strengths and weaknesses of the inividual

sensory adaption

people are weak to changing stimuli and less sensitive to unchanging stimuli

pupil

refracts how much light is in your eye

lense

adjusts the distance of an object

retina

acts as a film.. sends messages to brain

optic nerve

sends impulses to brain

rods

responsible for capturing the brightness of light

olfactory nerves

sends smells to the brain

decibles

what sound is measured in in order for you to hear it

sensory experiences

makes up a taste, you already know what it taste like

psyco physics

reaction to sensory experience and pysical stimuli, continuity, similarity

kinesthesis

sense of movement and body position

continuity, similarity & simplicity

basic principles of perceptual organization

Gestalt

came up with rules (1-6) of perceptual organization

closure

the tendency to piece a complete or whole figure even when there are gaps (rule 1)

figure-ground perception

perception of figures against a background (rule 2)

proximity

nearness or grouping of images (rule 3)

similarity

grouping things together by how similar they are (rule 4)

continuity

seeing a clear pattern with no breaks (rule 5)

common fate

when you see a group and assume they're doing the same thing (rule 6)

perception of movement

we need movement to see where an object is relative to another object

stroboscopic motion

images mashed together to show movement

perceptual constances (1. size 2. color 3. shape)

experience equals consistances

consciousness

awareness of things inside or outside ourselves.. a psycological construct

psycological construct

used to describe things you can not see, touch, or measure directly

sensory awareness

sensations that you are conscious of.. unusual and intense stimuli (type of consc.)

direct inner awareness

a feeling of a memory you can not measure (type of consc.)

sense of self

knowing your own identity that only you know (type of consc.)

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