For which of the following reasons did pagan tribes begin the custom of covering the face of the deceased with a sheet?
They believed that the spirit of the deceased escaped through the mouth.
An early custom for mourners was to go barefoot and to wear sackcloth and ashes. What was the purpose of this practice?
To avoid making the dead envious
From which ancient custom do wakes held today originate?
Keeping watch over the deceased hoping life would return
. What was the significance of placing a funeral wreath on a coffin in pagan times?
Keeping the dead person's spirit within bounds
States have their own criteria for determining when death actually occurs, but most have adopted the definition of brain death proposed by which of the following?
Uniform Determination of Death Act
According to the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which of the following is a criteria for death?
Entire brain ceases to function
Persistent vegetative state(PVS) exists as a result of severe mental impairment, characterized by irreversible cessation of the higher functions of the brain, most often caused by damage to which of the following organs?
A patient dies under suspicious conditions. Which of the following might occur to determine cause of this patient's death?
What may be the consequential result of autopsies performed in hospitals to confirm or correct clinical diagnoses?
Autopsies must be performed in cases in which the death is suspicious or due to homicide. Which of the following is true regarding current trends in performing autopsies?
A reason for fewer autopsies is the unavailability of pathologists in small hospitals.
A patient has been diagnosed with incurable lung cancer and it is determined that death is imminent. What type of care would best serve this patient?
For which of the following patients would palliative care be most appropriate?
A 35-year-old male with incurable pancreatic cancer
Which of the following is not a goal of palliative care?
Using current research studies to effect a cure for a terminal illness
The Center to Advance Palliative Care, based in New York, provides information to help patients and their families receive care that addresses all of the patient's needs. According to the organization's statistics, what percent of U.S. hospitals provide palliative care?
Traditionally, in educational programs for health care practitioners, courses of study have placed more emphasis on what type of care?
A physician suggests hospice care for a patient with aggressive brain cancer that is not responding to curative care. Which of the following is true about hospice care?
It is not designed to target the underlying disease process.
For patients to be eligible for hospice care, physicians usually must certify that they are not expected to live beyond how many months?
Which of the following correctly describes an aspect of hospice care?
Most in-home hospice programs are independently run.
A 1995 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) found that nearly 4 out of every 10 terminally ill patients spend at least how many days in intensive care connected to life-sustaining machines?
The six-year Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (SUPPORT) conducted by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in 1996, showed that more than what percent of people dying in hospitals suffered from uncontrolled pain, and that decisions to medicate were inappropriately timed?
A 2010 British study that surveyed 8,500 physicians found that their religious beliefs often affected the quality of end-of-life care administered. According to this study, which of the following physicians would be most likely to discuss comfort care only for critically ill patients?
A physician who is an agnostic
Increasingly, schools that train health care providers are offering courses in thanatology. What is the focus of this course of study?
Death and psychological methods of coping with it
The right to die first became a matter for the courts to deliberate in 1976, with the death of whom?
Karen Ann Quinlan
The l989 Uniform Rights of the Terminally Ill Act serves as a guideline for state legislatures in constructing laws addressing which of the following?
Which of the following state legislations was the first to permit physician-assisted suicide in certain circumstances?
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act
A physician is caring for a patient who asks him "Can you help me die in peace?" The physician agrees to withhold medical treatment for this patient. This is an example of what type of Euthanasia?
The Patient Self-Determination Act was passed in 1990. What patient's concern did this legislation address?
Which of the following is the legal term for an advance directive that specifies an individual's end-of-life wishes for medical treatment without necessarily appointing a designee to make legal decisions for him or her?
How is a health care proxy different from a durable power of attorney?
A health care proxy can only make health care decisions.
Studies conducted by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in 2004 found the increasing need for more donor organs a recurring theme, especially for which of the following types of transplants?
Over the decade from 1992 to 2002, the organ transplant waiting list increased by what percent?
What was the goal of the Model for End-State Liver Disease (MELD)?
Put the sickest candidates on the top of the list.
Which of the following was the goal of the Organ Donation and Recovery Improvement Act, passed in 2004?
Increase organ donations.
What was the purpose of the creation of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act?
To allow individuals to donate their bodies to science after death
Which of the following is one of the provisions of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act?
Except in autopsies, the donor's rights override those of others.
A person signs up to be an organ donor through his driver-licensing agency. Which of the following is true regarding the process of organ donation?
A donor's name is released to recipients only if both parties agree to it.
Which of the following statements best describes the term "grief"?
Grief is the human reaction to loss.
What aspect of death and dying did the late Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, MD describe?
Coping methods of persons who are grieving
Which of the following is an example of a person who is experiencing the third stage of grief according to Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, MD?
A person who is dying asks God to keep her alive to see the birth of her grandchild.
Which of the following is a stage of grief described by Roberta Temes, PhD in her book, Solace: Finding Your Way Through Grief and Learning to Live Again (New York: Amacon Books, 2009)?