AP Biology- Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

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Glycolysis

10 step, anaerobic process that breaks down 1 glucose and releases 4 ATP. It occurs in the cytoplasm and produces 2 NADHs, 2 NADs, and 2 pyruvic acid

phosphodfructokinase (PFK)

enzyme that catalyzes step 3 of glycolysis. ATP inhibits it if it (ATP) is present in large quantities in the cell

Krebs Cycle

process that starts when acetyl CoA combines with OAA to produce citric acid, occurs in the mitochondria matrix, and produces 3 NADHs, 1 ATP, 1 FADH and CO2. Each turn of it uses 1 pyruvate (each glucose produces 2 turns of this cycle).

NAD and FAD

coenzymes that carry protons or electrons from glycolysis and Krebs Cycle to the ETC

oxidation

loss of hydrogen atoms

cytochrome

any iron-containing that serve as electron carriers in either cellular respiration or photosynthesis

fermentation

anaerobic breakdown glucose that produces 2 ATP and alcohol and lactate

prep reaction

reaction that oxidizes pyruvate into aceytl-CoA with the release of CO2

pyruvate

end product of glycolysis

substrate level phosphorylation

process which ATP is converted to ADP by transferring a phosphate to a metabolic substance

C3 plant

plant that fixes carbon through the calvin cycle

C4 plant

plant that fixes carbon to produce a C4 molecule which releases CO2 into the Calvin cycle

Calvin Cycle

dark reaction. Reduces CO2 into a carbohydrate

CAM

C4 plant that fixes carbon at night

cyclic electron pathway

portion of light reaction that generates ATP and only involves photosystem 1

light reaction

portion of photosynthesis that captures solar energy, produces NADPH and ATP

RuBP Carboxylase

enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle by catalyzing attachment of carbon atom from CO2 to RuBP

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