What is the Old Method?
Tied to Christianity with the birth of Jesus. Referred to as BC it is before the birth of Christ and time decreases to zero.
What is AD?
Latin for "year of our lord" time increases
Globally accepted and not considered offensive to non Christians. BCE and CE
What is Prehistory?
Period of history before writing was invented
What is an Archaeologist?
Learn about early people through artifacts
Figure out people's culture and how they developed
What about Paleontologists?
What is the Stone age?
Period of human development that has taken place at different times in different places.
Nomads, 2.5m BCE-8000 BCE
What is the longest river in the world?
The Nile, which flows south to north. Regular summer flooding occurs, leaving fertile soil for farming. source of transportation.
What major geographical area covers one forth of Africa?
The Sahara, whose droughts last for years.
What was the religion in Ancient Egypt?
Polytheistic(worship many gods) sacred animals, worship varied from village to village.
What major gods and goddesses in Egypt?
Controlled forces of nature. Ra was the sun God and Osiris judged people after death and made the Nile rise and fall.
What was the afterlife?
At first it was only the Pharaohs but then for everyone. Heart was the symbol of truth. Placed in tomb with essentials for afterlife.
What was the social structure in Egypt?
You could change classes. (Pharaoh, gov. officials/nobles, middle class, peasants/slaves) Women had many legal rights.
Type of writing in Egypt?
Hieroglyphics which were the alphabet in Egypt, carved into stone or on papyrus.
Where is the Fertile Crescent?
Begins in valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and runs along the Mediterranean coast to Egypt.
What are Sumerian city-states?
the earliest governments controlled by priests except in time of war then they are controlled by monarchs.
What religion were the Sumerians?
Polytheistic. they built Ziggurats, or statues, to impress the gods. believed in negative afterlife.
Who was Hammurabi?
Made up 282 laws but they applied to everyone. The punishments varied by class. Babylonian empire reached height under him.
Why was Canaan so important to Hebrews?
It was the original home of them.
What were the Hebrew's views on religion?
Had the Torah, the first 5 books of their bible. They believed in Yaweh, god of Hebrews and the whole world(according to them). they were also monotheistic.
Who was Abraham?
Shepard chosen by God to be the leader of Hebrews. Told by God to move them from Mesopotamia to Canaan(round 2000BCE) then Egypt(1650BCE)
Who was Moses?
Led Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt(the Exodus) around 1300-1200BCE. Given the 10 Commandments by God on top of Mt. Sinai. They defined human relationships to Yahweh and among themselves. it is law of Judaism.
What is Hinduism and where did it come from?
it is modern, dates to circa 500BCE and there is no single founder. it developed through an explanation of the Vedas, 4 collections of sacred writings produced by Aryans during early stages of settlement in India.
What were some of the sacred writings for Hinduism?
The Vedas, The Mahabharata and the Ramayana, The Bhagavad Gita, and Kalidasa.
Who was Siddhartha Gautama?
An Indian prince born 6th cent. BCE who wondered about suffering and death. also the founder of Buddhism, he prayed under a tree for 49 days and found enlightenment.
What were the Four Noble Truths?
set of "truths". 1.Everything in life is suffering and sorrow. 2. Cause of all suffering is desire for pleasure. 3. End suffering by ending desire. 4. Overcome desire follow Eightfold path(right behaviors, mindfulness, concentration,views).
What is the difference between Buddhism and Egyptians, Sumerians, and Hinduism?
they rejected the idea of many gods and reject caste system.
What do Buddhist Monks do to devote their life to Buddhism?
Don't marry, live life of poverty, and are nonviolent.
What is a sky burial?
Where the body is left for the birds.
What was in the Shang society in China?
There was a sharp division between nobles and peasants, were governed by warrior-nobles.
What were the rules on family and religion?
Family- respect for parents, elder men controlled property and made important decisions, while the women were inferior. girls 13-16 got married.
Religion- spirits of ancestors have power to bring good luck or disaster to living.not thought of as gods. pay respect and make sacrifices or else. the supreme god was Shang Di.
What are Oracle Bones?
animal bones/tortoise shells that priests scratched questions for the gods.