The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history.
classicism, humanism individualism, power, secularism
studies intended to provide general knowledge and intellectual skills (rather than occupational or professional skills)
italian city states
Italy's leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici's
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
lorenzo de medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Florentine architect who was the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance (1377-1446) , Created new architecture based on Roman classical buildings, designed church of San Lorenzo in Florence that does not overwhelm the worshiper, but offers a space to fit human needs.
leonardo da vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace - espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion - reflect artist's strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion.
dpecified qualities needed to be a true gentleman, including physical and itellectual abilities and leading an active life
THE BOOK OF THE COURTIER
courtesy book. It was written by Baldassare Castiglione over the course of many years, beginning in 1508, and published in 1528 by the Aldine Press in Venice just before his death; an English edition was published in 1561. It addresses the constitution of a perfect courtier, and in its last installment, a perfect lady.
A perso who takes part in the highly refined social life of a court
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country.
diet of worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
peace of augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler; treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the imperial city of Augsburg, now in present-day Bavaria, Germany. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire.
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life. (you going to get into heaven? it's allready been decided!)
a city in southwestern Switzerland at the western end of Lake Geneva. john calvin became the religious leader.
A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
(Mary Tudor); queen of England from 1553-1558; she was Henry 8's first daughter (with Catherine of Aragon) and was declared illegitimate by him, but came to power later and abolished the Church of England as soon as she got to power
, aka bloody mary; very unpopular ruler came to reign after younger brother edward 6 died, she was the daughter of henry 8 and married philip 2
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603 NOUN
EX. daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn; she succeeded Mary I (who was a Catholic) and restored Protestantism to England; during her reign Mary Queen of Scots was executed and the Spanish Armada was defeated
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
council of trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend. A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
inquisition and intent
a church court, set up during the middle ages. they used secret testimony, torture and execution to root out heroic, also decided what books to be banned
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the CHurch during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius de Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
michel de montaigne
(1533-1592) French Renaissance writer who developed the essay as a literary genre. Known for his skeptical attitude and willingness to look at all sides of an issue.