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Terms for AP Statsitics

statistics

the science of collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data.

population of interest

the entire collection of individuals or objects about which information is desired.

sample

a subset of the population, selected for study in some prescribed manner.

descriptive statistics

methods for organizing and summarizing data.

inferential statsitics

generalizing from a sample to the population from which it was selected.

univariate data set

a data set consisting of observations on a single attribute.

categorical data (qualitative)

if the individual observations are categorical responses.

numerical data (quantitative)

if each observation is a number.

bivariate data set

a data set consisting of observations on two different attributes.

multivariate data set

a data set consisting of observations for each of two or more attributes.

numerical data: discrete

if the possible values are isolated points on the number line.

numerical data: continuous

if the set of possible values forms an entire interval on the number line.

frequency distribution for categorical data

a table that displays the possible categories along with the associated frequencies or relative frequencies.

frequency

for a particular category, it is the number of times the category appears in the data set.

relative freqency

for a particular category, it is the fraction or proportion of the time that the category appears in the data set, it is calculated as: relative frequency = frequency/number of observations in the data set

relative frequency distribution

when the table includes relative frequencies.

bar chart

a graph of the frequency distribution of categorical data.

dotplot

a simple way to display numerical data when the data set is reasonably small.

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