Kinn's Medical Assistant Chapter 30 Nutrition and Health Promotion

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Nutrition and Health Promotion

Amino acids

The organic compounds that form the chief constituents of protein and are used by the body to build and repair tissues

Cholesterol

a substance produced by the liver

Deficiencies

Conditions that result in below normal intake of particular substances

Vertigo

Dizziness

Turgor

The resistance of the skin To being grasped between the fingers and release

macular degeneration

A progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in loss of central vision

diabetes mellitus type 1

A disease in which the beta cells in the pancreas no longer produce insulin.

diabetes mellitus type 2

A disease in which the body is unable to use glucose for energy as a result of either inadequate insulin production in the pancreas or resistance to insulin on the cellular level.

digestion

the organic process by which food is converted into chemical substances that can be absorbed into the body

diverticulosis

Abnormal condition of pouchlike herniations through the muscular layer of the colon.

free radicals

Compounds with at least one unpaired electron, which makes the compound unstable and highly reactive. Free radicals are believed to damage cell components, ultimately leading to cancer, heart disease, or other diseases.

hydrogenated

Combined with, treated with, or exposed to hydrogen

triglyceride

A fatty acid and glycerol compound that combines with a protein molecule to form high-or-low to density lipoprotein

psyllium

A grain found in some cereal products, in certain dietary supplements, and in certain bulk fiber laxatives; a water-soluble fiber

Registered Dietician (RD)

An individual with a minimum of a bachelor's degree in food and nutrition who is concerned with the maintenance and promotion of health and the treatment of diseases through diet.

osteoporosis

Loss of bone density; lack of calcium intake is a major factor in its development

obesity

An excessive accumulation of body fat; defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher

neural tube defects

Any of a group of congenital anomalies involving the brain and spinal column that are cause by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development

Carbohydrates should account for what percentage of total calories consumed in one day

55-57%

Total Cholesterol

HDL + LDL

Liquid Diet

Clear Liquid; broth tea and gelatin

Soft or Light Diet

Status Post-op; no raw vegetables or spices

Mechanical Soft Diet

Regimented diet that is chopped, ground, or pureed

Bland Diet

Dietary Restrictions; used for problems with Gastrointestinal problems. None gas forming.

BRAT Diet

Bananas, Rice, Applesauce, Tea. Used to nourish after having G.I. problems (upset stomach). Potatoes can be substituted in place of rice if boiled.

20 Amino Acids

The amount of amino acids that are necessary for normal growth

Vegetables

an example of an incomplete protein

Amount of daily calories needed from proteins

18%; 91 gms. needed per day

Saturated Fats

denser and heavier than other fats

Dietary Fats/Lipids

provide fatty acids and are needed for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A D E and K

Transfats

Biproducts created by humans; when polyunsaturated oils are solidified by the addition of Hydrogen

Fats

Storage; a form of fuel used to back up carbohydrates as available energy

CHO

Carbohydrate

Metabolism

the process in which nutrients are used

Anabolism

the building phase in which smaller molecules such as Amino Acids are combined to form larger molecules such as Proteins

Catabolism

the breaking-down phase in which larger molecules are broken down and converted into smaller units

Basal Metabolism

the amount of energy needed to maintain essential body functions

BMR

Basal Metabolic Rate

Nutrition

the organic and inorganic chemicals in food that supply the energy and raw materials for cellular activites

the makeup of nutrients

carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, and water

Homeostasis

Multiple functions that attempt to keep the body's functions in balance; a steady state

Bulimea

Binging and Purging

Anorexia Nervosa

Self-starvation

Stress Management

Stress stimulates the fight or flight response. Symptoms of stress: headache, HTN, diarrhea

1800-2000

amount of calories needed per day

Nutrients

must provide a source of fuel or energy. Also supplies minerals to build and repair tissues. Regulate metabolic process

GLYCEMIC INDEX

rates carbohydrate food on a scale from slowest to fastest effects of blood glucose levels. The lower the Glycemic Index value of the food the longer it takes to raise the patient's blood glucose level. One fo the scales is based on 100 glycemic units + to the number of units in a glucose tablet.

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