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Histology

the study of tissues

Tissues

similar cells that are specialized to carry out a particular function

What are 4 types of tissue

1. Epithelial Tissue
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Nervous tissue

What are five general characteristic of epithelial tissue?

1. tightly packed with little matrix
2. all have one apical surface
3. all have basement membrane
2. no blood supply (avascular)
3. regenerate easily

What is the apical surface?

free surface exposed to the body's exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ

What is the basement membrane?

layer that anchors epithelial tissue to underlying tissues

What are cilia?

tiny hair-like projections on cell surfaces that move in a wavelike manner

What are the 4 functions of epithelial tissue?

1. Protection
2. Absorption
3. Filtration
5. Secretion

Protection

prevent injury from friction, pathogens, or chemicals

Filtration

movement of material through a membrane

Secretion

substance produced in and released from a gland cell

Absorption

taking in of substance by cells or across membranes

How is epithelial tissue classified?

1) By number of layers
2) Cell shape

What is the function of stratified epithelium?

protection

What are the functions of simple epithelium?

Absorption, Filtration, and Secretion

Where is simple squamous epithelium found in the body?

Air sacs of lungs and walls of capillaries

Where is simple cuboidal epithelium found in the body?

forms walls of the kidney tubules and covers the surface of the ovaries

What is the function of goblet cells?

production and secretion of mucus

Where is simple columnar epithelium found in the body?

linings of the digestive tract such as the small intestine

Where is psuedostratified columnar epithelium found in the body?

linings of respiratory passages

Where is stratified squamous epithelium found in the body?

skin

Where is transitional epithelium found in the body?

urinary bladder

Where is glandular epithelium found in the body?

forming glands throughout the body

What are the functions of connective tissue?

Protecting, Supporting, and Binding Together

What is extracellular matrix?

nonliving material found between cells in connective tissue

What are 2 components of connective tissue?

1. Extracellular Matrix (nonliving)
2. Cells (living)

What are three types of fibers in connective tissue?

1. Cartilagenous Fibers
2. Elastic Fibers
3. Reticular Fibers

Which type of connective tissue is avascular?

dense connective tissue

Where is areolar tissue found in the body?

"cobwebby" tissue found beneath the skin and between muscles

What is another name for adipose tissue?

fat

What is the function of adipose tissue?

Protects (cushions structures), stores fat, protection from extreme temperature changes, and insulates

Where is dense connective tissue found in the body?

ligaments and tendons

Where in the body is reticular connective tissue found?

forming the delicate network of interwoven fibers of the internal framework of some organs

Where in the body is cartilage found?

nose and ears, voice box, vertebral discs

Which type of connective tissue has a solid matrix?

Bone

Which type of connective tissue has a liquid matrix?

Blood

What is the function of blood?

transports gases, defends against disease, clotting

What are the 6 types of connective tissue?

1. Loose Connective Tissue, 2.Adipose, 3.Dense Connective Tissue, 4.Cartilage 5. Bone 6. Blood

What makes muscle tissue different from other tissues

muscle tissue is highly characterized to contract to produce movement

What are the 3 type of muscle tissue

1. Skeletal Muscle
2. Smooth Muscle
3. Cardiac Muscle

What are characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue?

1. long cylindrical cells
2. striated
3. multinucleate
4. voluntary control

Where is skeletal muscle found?

attached to bones

What are characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?

1. short branching cells
2. striated
3. uninucleate
4. involuntary control

What are general characteristic of smooth muscle tissue?

1. shorter spindled shaped cells
2. no striations
3. uninucleate
4. involuntary control

Where is smooth muscle found?

walls of hallow internal organs (stomach, blood vessels, intestines)

What is the function of skeletal muscle

produce body movements and facial expressions

What is the function of cardiac muscle

pump blood throughout the body

Where is cardiac muscle found?

Heart

What is the functions of nervous tissue?

irritability and conductivity

Irritability

ability to respond to a stimulus

Conductivity

ability to transmit an electrical impulse

What are the two types of nervous tissue?

neurons and neuroglia

What is the function of neurons?

receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another

What is the function of neuroglia?

insulate, support, and protect delicate neurons

What is regeneration?

the replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells

What is fibrosis?

tissue repairing which involves repair by dense connective tissue by the formation of scar tissue

Which tissues regenerate easily?

epithelial tissue, fibrous connective tissue and bone

Which tissues regenerate poorly?

skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nervous tissue

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