SCTD Art History I -Exam 3

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Study guide for SCTD's art history 1 final exam covering the Middle Ages through the Rococo.

Identify the blue, almond shaped area around the figure of Jesus in Byzantine art.

Mandorla

List any two characteristics of Byzantine art

Flat gold backgrounds. Simple, doll-like figures. Lack of 3D depth. Flat, "dinner-plate" halos. Lack of realism.

Give a definition for the word "icon"

an image. A picture of what it represents. A small devotional painting.

Describe what we mean by the term/media 'encaustic'

to burn in. A method of painting with hot wax.

What is being symbolized by an 'entire army' standing behind a single shield in the Justinian mosaic?

unity behind Justinian and under christianity.

How does the artist of this mosaic balance the status of the figures of Emperor Justinian and Archbishop Maximianus?

J: Halo plus crown, arm with bowl appears to overlap that of M. Purple robe.
M: Feet are lower, name above head.

What Roman artisitic styles can be seen in this manuscript painting of St. Matthew?

Landscape background. Roman ruins. Facial expression. Roman toga. Attempt at 3D. Dull Roman fresco color scheme.

How is the style Ottonian manuscript page different than the St. Matthew page?

Bright jewel-tone color scheme. Beardless Jesus. Attempt at 1 point perspective. Golden veil between worlds.

The Bayeux Tapestry

What astronomical event can be seen in the sky overhead on Bayeux tapestry?

Halley's Comet

This Bayeux Tapestry is not actually a tapestry, but this:

Embriodery

List two things we can learn about the middle ages by studying the 'Bayeux tapestry'.

Period dress. Warfare customs. Armor styles. Farming techniques. Ship-building. Royal Funerals. etc.

The tapestry was most likely made by whom?

women of the court of William of Normandie

How did later artists like Michelangelo and Raphael use the works of Giotto?

As an art academy to learn from.

How does Giotto treat the human form differently than artists of the Middle Ages?

Gives it weight and human expression, individual portrait faces and real 3D space to occupy.

The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait

What is the purpose of the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait?

to serve as a legal documnet

What is symbolized by the little dog in the the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait?

fidelity (faithfulness) and wealth

Why is the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait set in the bedroom?

it was the traditional gift from the groom to the bride-proves she received it.

What is the symbolism of the shoes on the floor in the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait ?

standing on holy ground-refers to where the marriage took place-on church steps.

How is the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait signed?

Jan van Eyck was here

Why was the Arnolfini Wedding Portrait signed this way?

the artist was signing as a witness

The term 'Renaissance' means what?

rebirth

What new class of people brought about the end of the feudal system and helped develop the republic as a governmental model in the Renaissance?

the merchant or middle class

Robert Campin

What is the term used to describe a painting in which three panels have been hinged together?

triptych

Why is the Robert Campin Madonna set in a "modern-day" Renaissance setting?

to give it relevance to life in the Renaissance.

The Vitruvian Man

artist of the Vitruvian man

Leonardo DaVinci

Albrecht Durer

Albrect Durer was the first artist to:

publish a collection of his own works

The term "Romanesque" means

roman-like

age of Donatello's "David"

12-14 years old

emotion or attitude of Donatello's "David"

feminine, cocky, over-confident, graceful

Leonardo DaVinci

Why did DaVinci's last supper begin to deteriorate so quickly?

mixture of egg tempera and oil paint, bacteria, humidity, used as stable (Napoleon) and bombing damage WWII

What artistic device did Michelangelo use to make the figure of Mary in his "Pieta" able
to hold the figure of Jesus?

Monumental Mary-she is twice his size or more.

Michelangelo

What is the name commonly given to the most famous section of the Sistine Ceiling?

Creation of Adam

Venus of Urbino

What is the painting the Venus of Urbino a symbol of (in general)?

Marital love

What is the meaning of the little dog in the Venus of Urbino?

fidelity (faithfulnes)

Michelangelo

age range of Michelangelo's "David"

17-20 years old

emotion or attitude of Michelangelo's "David"

contemplative, thinking, distant, idealized

Why did woodcuts suddenly become so important in the late 1400-early 1500's?

Because Gutenberg's printing press had been invented and illustrations needed to be mass-produced.

Paolo Veronese

What did Paolo Veronese do to appease the inquisition?

He changed the name of the painting to "Feast in the House of Levi"

Gianlorenzo Bernini

When in the story of David and Goliath does the Bernini "David" take place?

during the battle-in the act of throwing the stone.

What is the age range of the Bernini "David"?

mid 20's

What is the attitude or emotion for the Bernini "David"?

concentrated, moving, dynamic

Which two philosophers can be seen in the
middle of tRaphael's painting, The School of Athens, one pointing toward
heaven, the other toward the earth?

Aristotle and Plato

This artist was often criticized in his own time for being TOO realistic, and therefore gritty and offensive to holy subject matter, name him:

Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi)

Critics of the day said that The Conversion of St. Paul, by Caravaggio, looked like
THIS had occured instead of divine intervention:

An Accident in a Blacksmith's shop.

The Italian term, chiarascuro, is used to describe paintings in which figures
appear suddenly out of a very dark background. What does "chiarascuro" mean?

Light and Shadow

The style of art popular at the beginning of the 18th century and characterized by pastel colors, delicate, feminine figures and racy themes was known as:

the Rococo

Happy Accidents of The Swing

Birth of Venus by:Botticelli

Caravaggio

Critics complained it looked like "an accident in a blacksmith's shop", not a miracle.

chiaroscuro

Italian for "light and shadow"

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