AP Government Vocabulary

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Affirmative action

LBJ's executive order-designed to correct the effects of past discrimination; requirement by law that positive steps be taken to increase the number of minorities in business, schools, colleges, and labor

Agenda setting

The process of forming the list of matters that policymakers intend to address

Amendment

A revision/change to a bill, law, or constitution

Amicus curiae brief

Friend of the court; interest groups may be invited to file legal briefs supporting/rejection arguments of the case

Anti-Federalists

Opposed the adoption of the U.S. Constitution b/c it gave too much power to the national govt at the expense of the state govts and it lacked a bill of rights

Appellate jurisdiction

On appeal from lower courts-Supreme Court is mostly an appellate court

Apportionment

Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state

Appropriations

Money granted by Congress or to a state legislature for a specific purpose

Articles of Confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

At-large

All the voters of a state/country elect their representative (senate elections are at large on the federal level)

Bicameral

2 chambers; Congress has the Senate and the House of Representatives

Bill

a proposal for a law

Bills of attainder

Prohibits a person being found guilty of a crime w/o a trial

Bill of Rights

The first 10 amendments to the Constitution-guarantees liberties to the people-written in 1789-ratified in 1791

Blanket primary

Registered voters may vote for candidates from either party on the same primary ballot

Block grant

Money given to states for general programs within a broad category

Brief

Legal document submitted to the court setting forth the facts of a case and supporting a particular position

Brief orders

The returning of a case to a lower court b/c a smiliar case was recently decided

Brown v. BOE of Topeka, KA

Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson: ended legal segregation, said school regulation is unconstitutional

Bureaucracy

A systematic way of organizing a complex &large adminstrative structure w/ responsibility for carrying out day-to-day tasks of the organization, departments, &agencies of the govt

Bureaucratic theory

The hierarchical structure and standarized procedures of govt allow bureaucrats to hold the real power over public policy; proposed by Max Weber

Cabinet

Govt depts headed by presidential appointees to help establish public policy &operate a specific policy are of govt activity

Casework

Assistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions/doing favors

Categorical grant

Federal grants for specific purposes define by law

Caucus

Locally held meeting in a state to select delegates who, in turn, will nominate candidates to political offices

Caucus (congressional)

An association of congressional members who advocate a political ideology/regional/ethnic/economic interest

Certificate

A lower court asks the Supreme Court abt a rule of law/procedure

Checks and balances

Each branch of govt is subject to restraints by the other two branches

Civil liberties

Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens

Civil rights

Positive acts of govt designed to prevent discrimination &provide equality before the law

Closed primary

Only registered party members may vote in the primary (independents, greens, etc...not allowed)

Cloture rule

Prevents filibustering (16 signatures) and ends debate in the Senate, by a 3/5s vote of the Senate

Coattail effect

Weaker/lesser-known candidates from (bottom of the ticket) the president's party profit from the president's popularity-people vote straight ticket because they like the top of the ticket.

Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise

Resolved differences btwn northern and southern states; Congress could not tax exports nor ban the slave trade for 20 yrs.

Comparable worth

Women should be paid salaries equal to men for equivalent job responsibilities &skills

Concurrent jurisdiction

The authority to hear cases is shared by federal &state courts

Concurrent powers

Powers shared by the federal and state govts (tax, to define crimes and punishments)

Concurring opinion

Justice/justices who agree w/ the majority's opinion but not with the reason behind the decision

Conference committee

A temporary committee to work out a compromise version of a bill that has passed the House of Representaives &Senate in diff. forms

Congressional districting

State legislatures draw congressional districts for Congressional elections

Connecticut Compromise

Legislative branch-2 houses-one based on population, one based on equal representation

Conservative

A person whose pol. views favor more local, limited govt, less govt regulations, conformity to social norms &values; rough on criminals

Constituency service

Casework, assistance to constituents by congressional members

Constituent

people within a district or state-government official represents them.

Constitution

The document setting forth the laws &principles of the govt; a plan of govt

Constitutional courts

Federal courts created by Congress under Article III of the Constitution, including the district courts, courts of appeals, &specialized courts such as the U.S. Court of International Trade

Constitutional law

Laws relating to the interpretation of the Constitution

Cooperative federalism

Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism

Courts of appeals

Federal courts that review decisions of federal district courts, regulatory commissions, &other fed. courts

Critical election

Sharp changes in the existing patterns of party loyalty due to changing social and economic conditions

Dealigning election

Party loyality becomes less important to voters, &they vote for the other party candidate/independent

Dealignment

When a significant # of voters choose to no longer support a particular pol. party

Declaration of Independence

Drafted in 1776 by T. Jefferson declaring America's separation from Great Britain (3 parts-New theory of government, reasons for separation, formal declaration of war and independence)

Deficit

Govt spending exceeds revenue

Delegated powers

Powers specifically granted to the national govt by the Constitution

Democracy

A system whereby the people rule either directly/by elected representation

Deviating election

Minority party is able to win the support of majority party members, independents, &new voters

Devolution

An effort to shirft responsibility of domestic programs to the states in order to decrease the size &activites of the fed. govt; some states have attempted to shift responsibilities further to local govts

Direct democracy

Citizens meet and make decisions abt public policy issues

Direct primary

Election within the party to choose their favorite candidate for a particular office

Discretionary spending

Spending set by the govt through appropriations bills, including operation expenses &salaries of govt employees (defense, environment, education, space exploration)

Discrimination

Unfair treatment of a person based on race/group membership

Dissenting opinion

Justice/justices who disagree with the majority opinion

District courts

Lowest level of fed. courts, where fed. cases begin &trials are held (bank robbery, environmental violations, tax evasion)

Divided govt

One party controls the executive, &the other party controls on /both houses of Congress

Double jeopardy

Being tried twice for the same offense (if you appealing, it is not double jeopardy because you are asking to be retried)

Dual federalism

Fed. &state govts each ahve defined responsibilities w/n their own sphere of influence; "layer cake" federalism

Elastic clause

The necessary &proper clause/Art. I, Sec. 8, Clause 18/imlied powers clause- that allows Congress to pass laws to carry out its powers

Electoral college

Number each state gets is based on the number of representatives and the number of senators that state has. Need 270 to win election

Electorate

People qualified to vote

Elite theory

A small group of people identified by wealth/ pol. power, who rule in their self-interest

Eminent domain

Allows the govt to take property for public use but also requires the govt to provide just compensation for that property

Entitlement program

Madatory payments made by the federal government to people meeting eligibility requirements, such as Social Security, vets, welfare, medicare

Environmental impact statement

Required studies &reports of likely environmental impacts, filed w. the Environmental Protection Agency prior to the beginning of a project

Equal Protection Clause

Constitutional guarantee that everyone be treated equally-14th amendment

Establishment Clause

Prohibits the establishment of a national religion-1st amendment

Exclusionary rule

Rule that evidence acquired as a result of an illegal act by police cannot be used agains the person form whom it was seized

Executive agreement

Agreement w/ another head of state not requiring approval form teh Senate

Executive order

The president directs an agency to carry out policies/existing laws (informal power)

Executive privilege

The right of the president to withhold info from Congress/ refuse to testify; limited by U.S. v. Nixon

Ex post facto law

Laws applied to acts committed before passage of the laws are unconstitutional

Extradition

States may return fugitives to a state from which they fled to avoid criminal prosecution at the request of the state's gov

Federal budget

Amount of money the federal govt expects to receive &authorizes govt to spend for a fiscal (12 mo.) year

Federalism

Powers that are shared and divided among federal and sub-divisional government (state/local)

Federalist Papers

Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. Constituiton

Federalists

Supported a strong central govt &expanded legislative powers

Federal system

Power is divided between the states &the fed. govt

Filibuster

A lengthy speech designed to delay or kill the vote on a bill; used only in the Senate

Fiscal federalism

National govt's use of fiscal policy to influence states through the granting/withholding of appropriations

Fiscal policy

The policies of taxation &spending that comprise the nation's economic policy

Fiscal year

A 12-month pd, October through Septmeber, for planning the federal budget

Floor leaders

Direct party strategy &decisions in the House of Representatives &Senate

Franking privilege

Privilege that allows member sof Congress to mail letters &other materials to constituents postage-free

Free Exercise Clause

Congress may not make laws restricting/ prohibiting a person's relgious practices-1st amendment

Freedom of expression

Freedom of speech/right to petition the govt for redress as 1st amendment right

Front-loading

Choosing an early date to hold the primary election

Full Faith &Credit Clause

States are required to recognize the laws &legal documents of other states-Article 4 for Federalism!

Gatekeepers

Media executives, news editors, &prominent reporters who decide what news to present &how it will be presented

General election

Voters choose officeholder form among all the candidates nominated by pol. parties/running as independents

Gerrymandering

Drawing of congressional districts to favor one pol. party/group over another

Get-out-the-vote

A compaign near the end of an election to get voters out to the polls

Government

The formal &informal institutions, people, &processes used to create &conduct pulbic policy

Grants-in-aid

Programs, money, &resources provided by the fed. govt to state &local govts to be used for specific projects &programs

Grassroots

Avg voter at the local level

Gridlock

When opposing parites &interests often block each other's proposals, creating a pol. stalemate/inaction btwn the esecutive &legislative branches of govt

Hatch Act

Prohibits govt employees from engaging in pol. activities whle on duty/running for office/seeking poli. funding while off duty; if in sensitive positions, may not be involved w/ pol. activities on/off duty

Hyperpluarlism

Democracy seen as a system of many groups pulling govt in many directinos at the same time, causing gridlock ineffectiveness

Ideology

A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals

Impeachment

Bringing charges of wrongdoing against a govt official by the House of Representatives

Implied powers

Not expressed, but may be considerered through the use of the Necessary and Proper (elastic) Clause

Impoundment

Refusal of the president to spend money Congress has appropriated

Incorporation

Application of portions of the Bill of Rights to the states under Amend. XIV

Incorporation doctrine

The Supreme Court ruling that most guarantees in teh Bill of Rights are applicatable to the states through Amend. XIV

Incrementalism

Small changes in policy over long periods of time; usually in reference to budget-making--that th ebest indicator of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a small increase

Incumbency effect

Tendency of those alrady holding office to win reelection due to advgs b/c they already hold the office

Incumbent

The person currently holding office

Inherent powers

Powers that exist for the national govt b/c the govt is sovereign

Initiative

Allows voters to petition to propose legislation &then submit it for a vote by qualified voters

Interest group

A group of private citizens whose goal is to influence &shape public policy

Interstate compacts

Agreements btwn states to work together on common issues

Iron triangle

Alliance- agencies, interest groups, &congressional committees/subcommittees (also known as sub-governments)

Issue network

Individuals in WA--located w/n interest groups, congressional staff, think tanks, universities, &the media--who regulary discuss &advocate public policies

Joint committee

Committee made up of members of both house of Congress-housekeeping issues decided

Judicial activism

The Court should play an active role in determining national policies

Judicial restraint

Holds that the Court should avoid taking the initiative on social &pol. questions, operation strictly w/n the limits of the Constitution

Judicial review

Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature; est. in Marbury v. Madison

Jurisdiciton

The authority of the courts to hear &decide issues in certain cases

Legislative courts

Courts created by Congress for a specialized purpose w/ a narrow range of authority

Legislative veto

To reject the actions of the president/executive agency by a vote of one/both house of Congress w/o the consent of th epresident; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Immigration &Naturalization Service v. Chadha

Lemon test

Lemon v. Kurtzman to measure the constituionality of state laws in regard to establishment clause (3 pronged test)

Liberal

A person whose views favor more govt involvemnt in business, social welfare, minority rights, &increased govt spending

Limited govt

Basic prinicple of U.S. govt that each person has rights that govt cannot take away

Line item veto

The president can reject a par tof a bill while approving the rest; declared unconstitutional

Lobbying

Attempting to influence policymakers though a variety of methods

Lobbyist

Uses pol. persuasion to influence legislation &benefit his/her org.

Logrolling

The exchange of pol. favors for support of a bill

Loose constructionist

broad interpretation of the Constitution

Maintaining elections

Traditional majorty power maintains power based on voters' party loyalty

Majority leader

The elected leader of the party with the most seat in the House of Representatives/Senate

Majority-minority districts

Drawing district boundaries to give a minority group a majority

Majority opinion

The majority of justices agree on the decision &the reasons for th edecision

Mandates

Requirements imposed by the national govt on state &local govts to comply w/ fed. rules &regulation

Mandatory spending

Required govt spending by permanent laws

Marbury v. Madison

Judicial review!

Markup

Rewrite of a bill after hearings have been held on it (happens in sub-committee)

Mass media

All forms of communication that reach a large portion of the public

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court decision upholding the supremacy of the national government over the states/implied powers clause also strenthened-national bank established because this supported power to tax

Media event

A speech or photo opporutnity staged to give a politician's view on an issue

Miranda v. Arizona

Right to be told what you are being held for.

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