What are the small holes in the transverse process of the cervical spine called?
approximately 5 min. after arriving
If the patient arrives in the radiology department on a cart for a flat and upright abdominal series, when is the upright done?
What one unique characteristic do all cervical spine vertebrae have?
What structure of the pharynx functions to close off the trachea during swallowing?
Name the joint that is formed by the articulations of the body of the vertabrae and the head of the rib?
What is the other name for the "tailbone"?
both sc joints are equal distance from center line of spine, and spinous process' are in center of spine
How do you determine rotation on a PA chest?
CR angled 15 degrees cephalad, midway between ASIS and greater trochanter
Where is the CR for the AP projection of the sacrum?
For cervical do a _Lateral_ (if not seen PT head could be tilted)
for thoracic do _ anterior obl_ 70 degree
for lumbar do _ post obl _ 45 degree l
The best projection to see the Z joints for C2-7 is
45 degree oblique (downside)
The intervertebral foramina are best seen on which projection of the cervical spine?
thyroid, thymus, para-thyroid, testicles and ovaries
When radiographing the T-spine what radiosensitive organs of concern?
When the pars interarticularis (usually L4 or L5) fails to unite in the front and back, it results in a condition called?
PA 15 degree caudel
If, due to pain, the patient cannot lie on his back for the AP sacrum, what alternate projection can be taken to achieve a similar view of the sacrum?
The patellofemoral joint is also called the
The dens is a conical process which projects upward from the body of
to straighten spine, open up vertebral disk spaces, and decrease curvature
Why should the knee and hips be flexed on an AP lumbar spine?
On the lumbar vertebrae the portion of the lamina located between the superior and inferior articular process is called
The anterior ridge of the body of the first sacral segment
Describe the sacral promontory
moves the clavicle above the ribs
When doing the AP axial of the clavicle, what does the 15 to 30 degree cephalic angle do to the clavicle?
larger and more blunt
Compared with the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic spine, the lumbae spinous process is:
Lateral sacrum coccyx
To reduce gonadal dose which single projection can be done to include both sacrum and coccyx?
The lateral thoracic spine demonstrates which structures best?
inferior and superior articular processes
The Z joint is the articulation between the
C4 - C6
The thyroid cartilage can be used as a landmark in identifying the position of
The tubercle of the rib articulates with which part of some thoracic vertebrae
Which vertebrae have ribs attached to them?
pelvic sacral foramina
The small foramina found in the sacrum are called:
C1 is also called:
10 degrees caudel, 2 inches above greater trochanter
Where is the CR for the AP projection of the coccyx?
What is another term for the sacral horn?
mid sagital plane
What radiographic plane should be parallel to the table when positioning for a lateral thoracic spine?
lower costal margins
Which topographical landmark corresponds to the level of L2?
medial and lateral meniscus
What is the fibrocartilage disks between the articular surfaces of the femur and tibia?
Whar is the longest and strongest bone in the human body?
How much obliquity is required to properly visualize the the Z joints at the L5-S1 level
What is the purpose of using a lead strip, on the table top behind the PT, when positioning for a lateral thoracic, lumbar, sacrum and coccyx?
1.5 inches inferior to the iliac crest, and 2 inches posterior to the ASIS
Where is the CR for a lateral L5-S1 projection?
Which topographical landmark corresponds to the L4-L5 disk space?
swimmers, angle caudel if PT can not raise arm
What position is used to demonstrate C7-T1 when it can not be visualized in a true lateral?
Which position or projection of the lumbar spine series will demonstrate a possible compression fracture
breathing technique (3-4) seconds
The breathing instructions for the lateral T-spine is:
What is another term for the armpit?
Another name for the dens is the :
The spinal cord begins with the :
What is the name of the upper broad aspect of the coccyx?
A condition where the lamina fail ro unite at the center line is termed what?
The sacroiliac joints lie at an oblique angle of how many degrees to the coronal plane?
The bones of the wrist are called
the head, neck and tuberosity free of superimposition by ulna
The external oblique of the elbow shows what structure free of superimposition?
An abdominal film that is properly exposed will show which muscles along each side of the lumbar spine
which topographical landmark corresponds to the level of S1-S2?
opens intervertebral disk space
what is the purpose of placing a sponge under the waist of a pt for a lateral thoracis or lumbar spine?
which muscle form the superior border of the abdominal cavity?
what is the other name for c-7?
the liver is in what quadrant?
ileum and cecum
the ileocecal valve is located at the junction of what structures?
the vertebral spine is made up of how many divisions?
what is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body?
the axis refers to:
an extreme thoracic curve is called?
what two things can be done to reduce the high amounts of scatter reaching the film during a lateral projection of the sacrum and coccyx?
the z-joints between C1 and C2 are best demonstrated on which projection?
the number of vertebrae that comprise teh cervical spine is?
what is the most distal portion of the vertebral column?
which specific z-joint is best demonstrated with an LPO of the lumbar spine?
away from the source or trunk of the body
angled towards the head
term used to indicate the path of the x-ray beam
head is lower than the feet
to move an arm of leg away from midline
decreasing the angle between a joint or a body part
near the source or closer to the trunk
vertical body plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
plane that divides the body into equal left and right side