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Unit A, Chapter 1, Lesson 1-3

Cell Membrane

Surrounds the cells and keeps it together. It controls the substances passing into and out of the cell.

Vacuoles

Storage spaces for food and waste.

Nucleus

Directs the cells activity.

Mitochondria

Break down sugar to produce energy.

Chromosomes

Provide instructions for all the traits of the cell and organism. These are not normally visible in a normal cell.

Cytoplasm

A watery, jellylike substance that fills the cell and contains the other cell parts.

Cell Wall

Encloses the cell membrane and gives the cell a stiff shape. Only in a plant cell.

Chloroplasts

Contains chlorophyll, which absorbs energy from sunlight, allowing the plant celss to make food.

DNA

A complex chemical that contains information about every part of an organism.

Genes

Control specific cell activities and characteristics of every organism.

Mitosis

The process of cell division that produces new body cells with complete sets of chromosomes.

Meiosis

The process that forms reproductive cells.

Sexual Reproduction

Joining of male and female reproductive cells.

Dominant

Factor that determines the trait shown.

Recessive

The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.

Punnett Square

An easy way to find all the possible combinations of factors in the offspring of two parents.

Robert Hooke

One of the first people to study cells.

Three Parts of the Cells Theory

1. Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things. 2. All life activities take place in cells. 3. New cells are produced by existing cells.

Gregor Mendel

Was the first person to show how traits are passed from parents to offspring.

microscopes

What enabled Robert Hooke to see cells?

Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts

Why do plant cells differ from animal cells?

halved

Meiosis is cell division in which the number of chromosomes is...

Dominant Traits:

Dimples, Cleft Chin, Detached Earlobes, Brown Eyes

Recessive Traits:

Widows peak, Attached Earlobes, Blue Eyes

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