Anatomy and Physiology - chapter 4: classification of epithelial tissues

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Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology (ninth edition) Cinnamon VanPutte, Jennifer Regan, Andrew Russo McGraw-Hill Companies ISBN-13: 97800773500

simple epithelium

consists of a single layer of cells, with each cell extending from the basement membrane to the free surface

stratified epithelium

consists of more than one layer of cells, but only the basal layer attaches the deepest layer to the basement membrane

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

special type of simple epithelium that appears to be stratified but is not

squamous

flat, scalelike cells

cuboidal

cube-shaped cells; about as wide as they are tall

columnar

cells that are taller than they are wide

nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

stratified squamous epithelium that consists of living cells in the deepest and outermost layers; layer of fluid covers the outermost layers; found in areas such as the mouth, esophagus, rectum and vagina

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

stratified squamous epithelium that consists of liveing cells in the deepest layers and dead cells in the outermost layers; dry, durable, moisture-resistant character; found in the skin, gums and oral hard palate

transitional epithelium

stratified epithelium where the shape of the cells and number of cell layer vary; underlying cells are roughly cuboidal or columnar when not stretched and become more squamous when they are stretched; lines the urinary bladder, ureters, pelvis of the kidney and the superior portion of the urethra

diffusion, secretion and absorption

simple epithelium functions

protection

stratified epithelium function

filtration and diffusion

squamous epithelium function

secretion and absorption

columnar and cuboidal epithelium function

microvilli

nonmotile; greatly increase free surface area and occur in cells that absorb or secrete

stereocilia

elongated microvilli found in sensory organs, such as the inner ear; play a role in sound detection

desmosome

disk-shaped structure with especially adhesive glycoproteins that bind cells to one another and intermediate filaments that extend into the cytoplasm of the cells

hemisdesmosome

attaches epithelial cells to the basement membrane

tight junction

holds cells together and forms a permeability membrane; formed by plasma membranes of adjacent cells that join to one another in a jigsaw fashion

adhesion belt

located between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells and just below the tight junction; acts as a weak glue that holds cells together

gap junction

small, specialized contact region between cells containing protein channels that aid intercellular communication by allowing ions and small molecules to pass from one cell to another

intercalated disk

gap junction between cardiac muscle cells

gland

secretory organ; composed primarily of epithelial cells supported by a connective tissue network; develop from an infolding or outfolding of epithelium

exocrine gland

gland with duct

endocrine gland

gland with no duct

hormone

product of endocrine glands

multicellular gland

gland composed of many cells

unicellular gland

gland composed of a single cell

Goblet cell

unicellular gland in the respiratory system that secretes mucus

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