Anatomy and Physiology - chapter 4: connective tissue classification

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Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology (ninth edition) Cinnamon VanPutte, Jennifer Regan, Andrew Russo McGraw-Hill Companies ISBN-13: 97800773500

mesenchyme

embryonic connective tissue; composed of irregularly shaped fibroblasts surrounded by abundant, semifluid extracellular matrix

mucous connective tissue (Wharton's jelly)

embryonic connective tissue in the umbilical chord

connective tissue proper
supporting connective tissue
fluid connective tissue

types of adult connective tissue

loose connective tissue

consists for relatively few fibers that form a lacy network with numerous spaces filled with ground substance and fluid

areolar tissue
adipose tissue
reticular tissue

subdivisions of loose connective tissue

areolar tissue

"loose packing" material of the organs and other tissues; attaches the skin to underlying tissues; contains collagen, reticular and elastic fibers and a variety of cells

adipose tissue

consists of adipocytes; contains large amoutns of lipid; large cells and a small amount of extracellular matrix; usually arranged clusters (lobules)

yellow adipose tissue
brown adipose tissue

types of adipose tissue

yellow adipose tissue

most abundant type of adipose tissue; functions include storage, insulation and protection

brown adipose tissue

adipose tissue found primarily in infants and in specific areas such as the axillae, neck and near the kidneys; specialized to generate heat

reticular tissue

forms the framework of the lymphatic system; characterized by a network of reticular fibers and cells

dense connective tissue

contains a relatively large number of protein fibers that form thick bundles and fill nearly all of the extracellular space

dense regular connective tissue
dense irregular connective tissue

dense connective tissue subdivisions

dense regular connective tissue

dense connective tissue that contains protein fibers in the extracellular matrix that are oriented predominantly in one direction

dense regular collagenous connective tissue
dense regular elastic connective tissue

types of dense regular connective tissue

dense regular collagenous connective tissue

dense regular connective tissue that contains abundant collagen fibers, giving it a white appearance; forms structures such as tendons and ligaments; fibers give the tissue considerable strength and resistance to stretching

dense regular elastic connective tissue

dense regular connective tissue that consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibers and abundant elastic fibers, giving it a slightly yellow color; forms some elastic ligaments (vocal chords and nuchal ligament)

dense irregular connective tissue

dense connective tissue that contains protein fibers arranged as a meshwork of randomly oriented fibers; forms sheets of connective tissue that have strength in many directions, but less strength in any single direction

dense irregular collagenous connective tissue
dense irregular elastic connective tissue

types of dense irregular connective tissue

dense irregular collagenous connective tissue

dense irregular connective tissue containing abundant collagen and making up most of the dermis as well as the connective tissue capsules that surround that retroparietal organs

dense irregular elastic connective tissue

dense irregular connective tissue containing abundant elastin and some collagen fibers and is found in the walls of some arteries

loose connective tissue
dense connective tissue

connective tissue proper

cartilage
bone

supporting connective tissue

cartilage

composed of cartilage cells within an extensive and relatively rigid matrix

perichondrium

dense irregular connective tissue layer surrounding the surface of nearly all cartilage

chondrocyte

cartilage cell

lacunae

spaces in which the chondrocytes are located

hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
elastic cartilage

types of cartilage

hyaline cartilage

cartilage containing large amounts of both collage fibers and proteoglycans; appears to have a glassy, transluscent matrix; found where strong support and some flexibility are needed, such as the ribcage and within the trachea

fibrocartilage

cartilage containing more collagen fibers than proteoglycans; slightly compressible and very tough; found in areas where a great deal of pressure is applied to joints, such as the knee and tempromandibular joints and between the vertebrae

elastic cartilage

cartilage containing numerous elastic fibers in addition to collagen and proteoglycans; found in areas that have rigid but elastic properties such as the external ears

bone

hard connective tissue that consists of living cells and mineralized matrix; has organic and inorganic properties

hydroxyapatite

specialized crystals that make up the mineral (inorganic) portion of bone

osteocytes

bone cells

spongy bone
compact bone

types of bone

spongy bone

bone that has spaces between plates

trabeculae

plates of bone that contain spongy bone

compact bone

bone that is solid with almost no space between many thing layers

lamellae

thin layers of bone

blood
hemopoietic tissue

fluid connective tissue

blood

connective tissue with a fluid matrix; cells move freely and rapidly through the body, carrying food, oxygen, waste products and other materials

hemopoietic tissue

fluid connective tissue that forms blood cells; in adults, it is found in bone marrow

bone marrow

soft connective tissue in the cavities of the bone

red marrow
yellow marrow

types of bone marrow

red marrow

hemopoietic tissue surrounded by a framework of reticular fibers; dominant type in children

yellow marrow

bone marrow that consists of yellow adipose tissue; does not produce blood cells

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