Specific biochemical substances used by the body for growth, development, activity, reproduction, lactation, health maintenance, and recovery from illness or injury
Essential Nutrients: Micronutrients
Required in smaller amounts to regulate and control body processes. Vitamins and minerals
Don't have to be supplied by dietary sources because they're either not required for body functioning, or they are synthesized in the body in adequate amounts
The 6 Classes of Nutrients
3 supply energy (carbs, proteins, lipids) and 3 are needed to regulate body processes (vitamins, minerals, water)
When will a person's weight remain stable?
When daily energy intake is equal to total daily energy expenditure
The energy required to carry on the involuntary activities of the body at rest, the energy needed to sustain the metabolic activities of cells and tissues
Examples of Basal Metabolic Activities
Maintaining body temp and muscle tone, producing and releasing secretions, propelling food through the GI tract, inflating the lungs, contracting heart muscle
Why do men have a higher BMR than women?
Larger muscle mass. BMR is 1 cal/kg of body weight per hour for men, and 0.9 cal/kg of body weight per hour for women
Factors that increase BMR
Growth, infections, fever, emotional tension, extreme environmental temperatures, and elevated levels of certain hormones (especially epinephrine and TH)
Rule of Thumb Method (determining ideal weight based on height)
Women: 100 lb. (for height of 5 ft) + 5 lb. for each additional inch over 5 ft.
Men: 106 lb. (for height of 5 ft) + 6 lb. for each additional inch over 5 ft.
This method can result in unrealistically low figures for adults who are very short or very tall
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Weight in kg divided by height in meters squared (kg/m^2)
Weight in lbs divided by height in inches squared X 703
<18.5 = underweight
18.5-24.9 = normal
25-29.9 = overweight
30-34.9 = obesity class 1
35-39.9 = obesity class 2
40+ = extreme obesity
Method of Calculating Caloric Requirements
Multiply healthy weight in lbs by 10 for women and 11 for men, then multiply by the number given for activity level (1.2 sedentary, 1.3 light activity, 1.4 moderate activity, 1.5 high activity)
Male: 130 lb X 11 cal/lb = 1430 cal/day X 1.3(activity level) = 1690 total daily calories
What hormones are especially important for keeping serum glucose levels fairly constant during both feasting and fasting?
Insulin and glucagon
Unlike ____ and ____, _____ is burned efficiently and completely, and does not leave a toxic product for the kidneys to excrete
Protein, fat, glucose
What does the body do when glycogen stores are adequate?
Converts excess glucose to fat and stores it as triglycerides in adipose tissue
Abnormal accumulation of ketone bodies that is frequently associated with acidosis. 50-100 carbs are needed daily to prevent this
____ amino acids are classified as essential, ____ are nonessential and can be synthesized in the body
Required for the formation of all body structures, including genes, enzymes, muscle, bone matrix, blood, skin
Neutral N Balance: When catabolism and anabolism are occurring at the same rate (healthy individuals)
Positive N Balance: N intake is greater than excretion (growth, pregnancy, lactation, recovery from illness)
Negative N Balance: more N is excreted than ingested (undesirable, starvation, and catabolism that immediately follows surgery, illness, trauma, stress)
Recommended daily intake of protein
0.8g/kg of desirable body weight. ~56g for average woman and 63g for average man
_____ compose 95% of the lipids in the diet. ____ lipids (such as ____) and ____ lipids (such as ____) constitute the remainder of the lipids ingested.
Triglycerides, compound, phospholipids, derived, cholesterol
Which type of fat raises serum cholesterol levels?
Saturated, unsaturated lowers serum cholesterol levels
When manufacturers partially hydrogenate liquid oils, they become more solid and more stable. Raises serum cholesterol level so it is to be counted as a saturated fat
Fat like substance only found in animal products. Nonessential. Important in cell membranes, especially abundant in brain and nerve cells.
Fat intake should be no more than ___% to ____% of total caloric intake, with less than ____% of fat calories from saturated fats and less than ____ mg/day of cholesterol
20, 35, 10, 300
Water, vitamins, minerals. Needed by the body for the metabolism of energy nutrients
Organic compounds needed by the body in small amounts. Needed for metabolism of carbs, protein, and fat.
Inorganic elements found in all body fluids and tissues in the form of salts (sodium chloride) or combined with organic compounds (ex: iron in Hb)
Needed in amounts >100mg/day. Calcium, phosphorus (phosphates), sodium, sulfur (sulfate), chloride, potassium, magnesium
Trace elements, needed in amounts <100mg/day. Iron, zinc, manganese, chromium, copper, molybdenum, selenium, fluoride, and iodine.
Recommended Food Intake (fruits, vegetables, grains, milk, meat & beans)
2 cups of fruit, 2 1/2 cups of veggies, 6oz. of grains, 3 cups of milk, 5 1/2oz meat & beans
How long is breastfeeding recommended as the major source of nutrition?
6-12 months, cow's milk not recommended for infants under 1 years of age
When should solid foods be introduced to infants?
When they are developmentally ready, usually between 4-6 months
Some nutrients compete against each other for absorption, and excess of one may lead to a deficiency of another. (zinc and copper)
A patient taking gingko biloba (an herbal), aspirin, and Vitamin E (dietary supplement) is at risk for ____ ____
excessive bleeding because each of these substances have blood-thinning properties, therefore surgery may need to be postponed
Nutritional Screening: DETERMINE
Disease, Eating poorly, Tooth loss/mouth pain, Economic hardship, Reduced social contact, Multiple medicines, Involuntary weight loss/gain, Needs assistance in self care, Elder years above 80
Mini Nutritional Assessment tool (MNA)
Used to detect elderly persons at risk for malnutrition before changes in albumin level and the BMI. Involves screening questions followed by anthropometric measurements (BMI, midarm and calf circumference, weight loss)
Conditions that cause Dysphagia
Poor dental health, cancer, neurologic disease (stroke, Parkinson's, dementia)
Serum Albumin Levels
Good indicator of a person's nutritional status a few weeks prior to when the blood is drawn, and can help identify chronic nutrition problems. This level doesn't change with increasing age
Ways protein status can be determined
Hemoglobin/hematocrit tests, serum albumin levels, transferrin levels
____ levels are directly proportional to the body's muscle mass, and a reduction in this value reflects severe malnutrition
Regular diets that have been modified to eliminate foods that are hard to digest and to chew, including those that are high in fiber, fat, and seasoning. (called low fiber or bland diets)
Although unlikely, what are 3 vitamins that may need to be supplemented in vegetarian diets?
A, B12, iron.
Nasogastric Tube (NG tube)
Short-term use (less than 4 weeks), inserted through the nose into the stomach. Patient is at risk for aspirating the tube feeding solution into the lungs.
NG tube. Flexible rubber or plastic single lumen tube with holes at the stomach end and a connector at the opposing end.
NG tube. Smaller, softer, more pliable polyurethane tube. Provides greater patient comfort and less trauma to the nares. Smaller diameter makes checking tube placement and med admin more difficult than with the larger diameter tubes
Nasointestinal Tube (NI tube)
Passed through the nose and into the upper portion of the small intestine. Might be used for a patient with increased risk for aspiration due to a diminished gag reflex or slow gastric motility. Also avoids potential for gastric reflex. Used with some medical conditions (delayed gastric emptying, gastric tumor)
Dumping Syndrome associated with NI Tube
When formula is delivered directly into the intestine it bypasses the pyloric valve which normally slows transit of food into the intestine. Rapid admin of hypertonic feeding solution into the proximal small intestine causes movement of extracellular fluid from the vascular system into the small intestine. Distention occurs, causing gas, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, cramping, and lightheadedness
Carbon Dioxide Monitoring
Determines nasogastric tube position and/or dislodgment. involves use of capnograph or a colorimetric end-tidal CO2 detector. If CO2 is detected, NG tube is placed in the airway instead of stomach
Long-Term Nutritional Support
Enterostomal tube may be placed through an opening created into the stomach (gastrostomy) or into the jejunum (jejunostomy). Placement can be accomplished by a surgeon or gastroenterologist via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or a surgically placed gastrostomy tube
Feeding remaining in the stomach. Needs to be checked every 4-6hrs during continuous feeding, or before each feeding if not continuous. 200-250mL+ is a high gastric residual volume and is associated with a high-risk of aspiration and aspiration-related pneumonia.
To what degree should the bed be elevated during gastric feedings, and how long after does it need to remain at that degree?
30 degrees, 1hour. Prevents reflux and aspiration
Replace a disposable feeding apparatus for open systems every ____ hrs, closed systems can be used up to ____ hrs
Should you give meds through a feeding tube while a feeding is being infused? Why?
NO! Some drugs become ineffective when mixed with feeding formulas. Meds mixed in feeding formulas may cause clogging of feeding tube. Give meds in liquid form whenever possible, and flush the tube with water before, between, and after the admin of meds
What to do if feeding tube gets clogged
Use a 60mL syringe to flush 30-60mL of warm water through the tube in attempt to unclog
Other uses for nasogastric tubes besides feeding
Decompress/drain stomach of fluid, unwanted stomach contents (poison, meds, air), allowing it to rest, or before/after surgery to promote healing. Also used to monitor GI bleeding and prevent intestinal obstruction.
Why Parenteral Nutrition may be used
Nonfunctional GI tract, comatose, patient has high caloric and nutritional needs due to illness or injury, patient undergoing aggressive cancer therapy and those recovering from extensive burns, surgery, sepsis, multiple fractures, etc.
How can parenteral nutrition be administered?
Centrally through a central venous access device (TPN) or peripherally (PPN) through a short term intravenous access through a peripheral vein. Basic difference between these 2 types is the concentration of the solutions infused.
Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)
Highly concentrated, hypertonic nutrient solution. Provides calories, restore N balance, and replaces essential fluids, vitamins, electrolytes, minerals, and trace elements. Can promote tissue and wound healing, and normal metabolic function
Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition
Less concentrated nutrient solution sometimes prescribed for patients who have a malfunctioning GI tract and need short term nutrition lasting less than 2 weeks. Administered through a peripheral vein (can't tolerate highly concentrated fluid)
Affects visual acuity, skin and mucous membranes, and immune function. Skin can turn orange (orange foods like carrots, squash, sweet potatoes)
Religious Views on Food (Mormon, Hindu, Islam & Judaism)
Mormons do not drink tea, coffee or alcoholic beverages, limit meat consumption. Islam and Judaism avoid pork. Hinduism = no beef
Iron stores deplete at ____ to ____ months, therefore Iron fortified cereal needs to be eaten for at least 1 month
If person has ____ or ____ ____ ____, limit potassium to almost nothing
chronic, acute, renal failure
If a patient has chronic renal failure they are going to have low ____ and ____.