AP Euro - The Cold War (1947-1980)

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AP Euro - The Cold War (1947-1980) Vocab Words Note: First names are in parentheses, so when you are in learn mode on Quizlet, set it to ignore everything in parenthesis so you don't have to memorize first names. Also, in Chinese names, the family name comes first.

Cold War

A continuing state of tension and hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union

(Marshal) Tito

The communist ruler of Yugoslavia; Pursued nationalist poclicies because Soviet troops (under Stalin) did not occupy Yugoslavia

Iron Curtain

1946; Chruchill's metaphor that became a symbol for the division of Europe and the growing fear of communism

Truman Doctrine

1947; President Truman asked Congress for $400 to aid Greece and Turkey (they were in danger of being overthrown by communists); Proclamation that the US would support any country that resisted communism

Berlin Airlift

1948; Western powers flew supplies into Western Berlin becuase of a Soviet Union blockade; Blockade liften in 1949

(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) NATO

1949; Military defensive alliance with the US, Canada, and 10 Western European countries to block communism

Warsaw Pact

1955; Soviet Union's military alliance of USSR and seven satelite states in Eastern Europe

Mao (Zedong)

1949; China's Communist leader; Successful against nationalists; Had support of the Soviet Union

Chiang (Kai-Shek)

1949; Nationalist leader of China; After Communist victory, fled to Taiwan; US recognized as official Chinese government

38th Parallel

1953; The line that divides North and South Korea

(Nikita) Khrushchev

1956; The major Soviet Union leader after Stalin's death; Issued de-Stalinization laws in economics

(Boris) Pasternak

1958; A Soviet Union novelist who was not allowed to accept the Nobel Prize for literature

Geneva Summit

1958; Meeting of Britain, France, US, and the Soviet Union to help resolve their differences; Largely failed

(Wladyslaw) Gomulka

1956; A Polish leader who gained concessions for Poland and calmed anti-Soviet feelings (during Khruschev's reign)

(Imre) Nagy

1956; President of Hungary; Liberal Communist reformer; Declared Hungary's neutrality and withdrew from the Warsaw Pact; Khrushchev crushed his rebellion

(Janos) Kadar

The leader of the Soviet Union's puppet regime in place of Imre Nagy in Hungary after it crushed his revolt

(Fidel) Castro

1959; Communist who overthrew the Cuban government of Bastita; Promised to make Cuba a democracy, but in 1961 declared it a Communist state in alliance with the Soviet Union

(Leonid) Brezhnev

1964; Became the leader of the Soviet Union after Khruschev was forced into retirement

(Alexander) Dubcek

1968; Czechoslovakia Communist Party Leader; Started reforms to lift censorship and allow openness; Reformes condemned by Brezhnev

Prague Spring

1968; Dubcek's reforms in Czechoslovakia to lift censorship, trade with the West, and form political groups; Condemned by Brezhnev

Brezhnev Doctrine

Brezhnev's policy that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene militarily in any socialist country that it saw the need to do so

(Lech) Walesa

1980; Poland's leader of Solidarity in response to strikes about the rise in meat prices; Called for economic changes

Solidarity

An independent trade union that called for political, industrial, and economic changes in the 1980s

(Karol) Wojtyla

The former archbishop of Krakow, Poland, who was elected Pope

Pope John Paul II

The first Polish pope who struggled for the rights of people across the world

Détente

1970; The spirit of relaxiation of tension during the Cold War

SALT I Accord (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)

1972; Nixon's agreement with the Soviet Union to limit the spread of nuclear weapons and intercontinental ballistics missles

Helsinki Pact

1975; The US, Canada, and European nations met in FInland to formally recognize the Soviet territorial gains on Europe, the division of Germany, and Soviet domination of Eastern Europe

Marshall Plan

1947; US provided over $13 billion in aid for the recovery of Europe; Stalin did not accept any aid

European Coal and Steel Community

1951; France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg agreed to intregrate the economies of Europe, especially with coal and steel

Treaty of Rome

1957; The treaty which set up the Europan Common Market which made a reduction of tarrifs

European Common Market

1957; An organization which reduced tariffs of member countries (six) to intregrate their economies

(Konrad) Adenauer

1949; "Die Alte" of West Germany; Worked to build the German economy by using Eastern EUropean refugees as labor

(Willy) Brandt

1969; Leader of the Social Democratic Party; Chancellor of West Germany; Policy of ostpolitik to seek reconciliation with East and West Germany

Ostpolitik

Eastern Policy, seeking reconciliation between East and West Germany; Brandt signed treaties with other countries to try to unify Germany; Resigned because people thought he was an Eastern Europe spy

(Helmut) Kohle

1982; A conservative Christian Democrat; Became the chancellor of West Germany after Brandt

(Margaret) Thatcher

1979; Conservative prime minister of England; Began to limit spending on social welfare programs and focus more on private enterprise

Fourth French Republic

The French government set up after World War II; Had a weak president, strong legislature, and too many parties

(Charles) De Gaulle

1958; Founder of the Fifth French Republic; Came out of retirement to write a new constitution for France after the failure of the Fourth French Republic

Fifth French Republic

1958; The new govermnet of France; Its constitution included a stronger president

(Francois) Mitterand

1981; French Socialist; President of France who tried to revive the economy by nationalizing private companies and banks and increasing wages and other social benefits

(Alcide) de Gasperi

1948; A Strong president of Italy who won a major victory over the Communists; Post-Facist Italy

(Aldo) Moro

1978; A respected Christian Democrat; Assassinated by the Red Brigade

Red Brigade

An Italian radical group that assassinated Moro

(Gamal Abdel) Nasser

1956; The Egyptian president who nationalized the Auez Canal, ending British Control

Suez Canal

The canal on the Eastern side of Egypt that was controlled by England until Nasser delcared independance

(Ho Chi) Minh

1954; Vietnamese nationalist hwo fought for vietnam's independance from France

Geneva Accords

The traty that recognized the independence of Cambodia and Laos and divided Vietnam into the North (communist) and South (allied with the US)

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