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ch 13 Modern Biology, 2009

length polymorphism

variation in the length of the DNA molecule between known genes

variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)

the number of tandem repeats at specific places (loci) in DNA that varies among individuals.

polymerase chain reacion (PCR)

a technique that quickly produces many copies of a DNA fragment

restriction enzymes

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

gel electrophoresis

The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.

DNA fingerprint

An individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments, detected by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes.

genetic engineering

The process of altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to allow them to make new substances.

recombinant DNA

genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms

clone

an exact copy of a DNA segment a whole cell, or a complete organism

vectors

vehicles by which DNa may be introduced into a host cell

plasmid

A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some eukaryotes, such as yeast.

probe

a strand of RNA or single-stranded DNA that is labeled with a radioactive element or fluorescent dye and that can base-pair to specific DNA, such as the donor gene in recombinant DNA.

Human Genome Project

An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.

proteome

the full complement of proteins produced by a particular genome

single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)

unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide.

bioinformatics

a technology that combines biological science, computer science, and information technology to enable the discovery of new biological insights and unifying principles

proteomics

the study of all of an organism's proteins, including its identity, structure, interaction, and abundance

two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

separates proteins in two steps, first by isoelectric points and then by molecular weights.

gene therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder

cloning by nuclear transfer

the introduction of the nucleus of a somatic cell into an egg cell that has been stripped of its genetic material for the purpose of cloning a whole organism

telomeres

Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

DNA vaccine

a vaccine made from the DNA of a pathogen but does not have disease-causing capability

bioethics

the study of ethical issues related to DNA technology

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