the submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
two or more atoms joined in a specific geometrical arrangement
the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules.
a tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations
highly controlled procedures designed to support a hypothesis or prove it wrong
a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones
law of conservations of mass
"In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed"
a proposed explanation for observations and laws based on well-established and tested hypotheses, that presents a model of the way nature works and predicts behavior beyond the observations and laws on which it was based. Explains not only what nature does, but why it does it.
The theory that each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms.
is made up of only one component and its composition is invariant (does not vary from one sample to another). Ex. Helium, water, and table salt.
substance composed of two or more components in proportions that can vary from one sample to another. Ex. Sugar water.
which means that the composition varies from one region to another. They have a uniform composition because the atoms or molecules that compose them mix uniformly.
which means that the composition is the same throughout. Made of distinct regions because the atoms or molecules that compose them separate.
are changes that alter only state or appearance, but not composition. The atoms or molecules that compose a substance do not change their identity during the physical change. Ex. Water boiling
changes that alter the composition of matter. Atoms rearrange, which transforms the original substance into a different substance. Ex. Rusting of iron.
a property that a substance displays without changing its composition. Ex. Smell of gasoline (gasoline does not change its composition when it exhibits this property). Odor, taste, color, appearance, melting point, boiling point, and density.
a property that a substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change. Ex. The flammability of gasoline because gasoline changes its composition when it burns. Corrosiveness, flammability, acidity, and toxicity.
the capacity to do work
the action of a force through a distance
the total energy of an object, the energy associated with its motion
the energy associated with its position or composition
the energy associated with the temperature of an object
a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 32 degrees and the boiling point of water a 212 degrees
a temperature scale that defines the freezing point of water as 0 degrees and the boiling point of water as 100 degrees
a temperature scale that defines absolute zero as 0 degrees
the measure of space
a property that is the same no matter the amount of the substance. Independent.An example is density
a property that does depend on the amount of a substance. Ex. Mass
the ratio of its mass to its volume of an object
how close the measured value is to the actual value
how repeatable the measurements are
error that has equal probability of being too high or too low. Almost all measurements have some degree of random error and random error can, with enough trials, average itself out. (inaccurate and imprecise)
error that tends toward being too high or too low. Usually it does not average out because it is a result of something like a balance that isn't calibrated right. (precise and not accurate)
a measure of the quantity of matter within an object
the measure of gravitational pull on the matter in an object
when using units as a guide to solving problems
atoms or molecules are packed together as closely as they do in solid matter, but they are free to move about relative to each other (since liquid is a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape)
solid matter, atoms or molecules are packed close together in a fixed location. The atoms and molecules do vibrate, but they do not move to get around each other.
atoms or molecules have a lot of space between them and are free to move relative to one another. This makes gas compressible. Gases always assume the shape and volume of their container.