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History 3-1

delta

a triangular region formed at the mouth of a river by deposits of silt (You would find this near a river.)

cataracts

rocky stretches in a river marked by rapid currents or waterfalls (The Nile River flows through a series of these.)

Menes

1st pharaoh of Egypt; ruled (he was credited with uniting Upper & Lower Egypt and is said to have founded the city of Memphis, the capital of unified Egypt)) (He was important because he founded Egypt's 1st dynasty/ Memphis.)

pharaoh

ruler of ancient Egypt (King Tut was one of these.)

theocracy

a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God's authority (Ex: Egypt)
(religious government)

bureaucracy

a highly structured organization, often governmental, managed by officials;(government) (It was important b/c they helped the pharaohs and did what the pharaohs told them to do.)

Hatshepsut

one of the few women to rule Egypt )known for a huge trading exposition she went to Punt Queen of ancient Egypt; she took the throne in place of the stepson(Thutmose III), and during her reign, focused on temple-building projects and trade

Ramses the Great

the most admired pharaoh ; Pharaoh of Egypt; he led an army against/to confront Hittite invaders of Egypt (but ended conflict with the Hittites); he ruled Egypt with extravagance & built more (huge) temples and monuments than any other Egyptian pharaoh.

ka

an individual's personality separated from the body (The Egyptians believed this went to the land of the dead.)

hieroglyphics

a form of ancient writing in which picture symbols represent sounds (You would find many of these in Egypt.) used symbols, formal writing, stone monuments, ART!

Rosetta Stone

a granite stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglyphics, demotic characters, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics. (This is very important to Egypt's history.

papyrus

a paper-like material made by ancient Egyptians from the stem of the reedy papyrus plant, which grows in the Nile River delta (This was used to make scrolls and "paper".)

obelisks

tall, thin pillars with pyramid-shaped tops (There were many of these in Egypt.)

successors

heir

pharaoh

king

Describe 2 geographical features found in Egypt.

A delta which is an area at the mouth of a river made of silt deposits & cataracts which are rocky stretches marked by swift currents and rapids.

In Egypt, the Sahara Desert was good for protection.

The Sahara was so difficult to cross that it discouraged people from invading.

The ______ _______had cataracts. Because of these dangerous currents & falls, boats couldn't sail through them. This river flooded every year (predictable floods) & covered the land with black silt giving fertile soil (farming). The richest most fertile soil was found in the delta (good for farming).

Nile River

The dark color of the Nile river silt is where the Egyptian's got the name for their country-

the Black Land

What were the ancient pyramids built out of?

limestone

Who built pyramids?

peasants, laborers, architects, and slaves

What was inside the pyramids?

tunnels, chambers, valuables, and the mummy of the pharaoh- also, the pharaoh's organs were placed in jars inside the tomb

vizer

one of the most powerful officials in Egypt (The vizer was important b/c he was responsible for advising the pharaoh, carrying out his orders, and trying court cases.)

monotheism

the belief in one god (it was important because it eliminated confusion about other gods, and worshiping one god would make Egypt more stable

Amon-Re

god of the sun and sky; king of the gods

Anubis

judge of the dead and protector of cemeteries

Osiris

king and judge of the dead

Isis

goddess of nature and protector of women

Horus

god of the sky

Hathor

goddess of love

demotic

-legal documents
-literacy writings

hieratic

religious texts

What did Egyptians write on?

papyrus, wood, leather, pottery

Long after the Old Kingdom collapsed, the _________ Kingdom began.

Middle

The _________ruled Egypt for almost 100 years. They were raiders from Syria who conquered the Middle Kingdom with their many unknown technologies, such as horse-drawn chariots armor, and strong bows. They defeated the Egyptians easily with their new & advanced technology.

Hyksos

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