a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea; example: boy, Juan, river, Texas
names any person place, thing or idea; example: pilot, city, park
names a particular person, place, thing, or idea; example: Amelia Earhart, Chicago, Katmai National Park
names one person, place, or thing; example: principal, cafeteria, stereos
names more than one person, place, or thing; example: principals, switches, communities, toys, leaves, roofs, radios, potatoes, feet, sheep
noun that shows ownership or possession
singular possessive noun
shows ownership by one person or thing; example: my aunt's house
plural possessive noun
shows ownership by more than one person or thing; example: my friends' parents
takes the place of one or more noun; example: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, it
when using pronoun, the noun to which it refers; example: HE heard. NICHOLAS heard. // pronouns should agree with number and gender; example: NICHOLAS heard a LIBRARIAN tell STORIES.
used as a subject or part of a the subject in a sentence; WE are ready to go.
is used as a direct/indirect object in a sentence; example: Rebecca gave ME a gift.
shows ownership or possession of something; example: Jerome is learning about HIS ancestors.
usually refers to the subject of a sentence; examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves
a pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea; examples: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no one
use as a subject pronoun; example: _____ is not going?
use as an object pronoun; example: To _____ am I speaking?
a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun; example: We saw LAZY lions beneath a SHADY tree.
adjectives 'a,' 'an,' and 'the'
an adjective that is formed from a proper noun; example: Africa --> African; Scotland --> Scottish
tells which one; examples: this, that, these, and those
an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.
adjective used when no comparison being made; example: This is a HOT day.
an adjective used to compare two items; example: Today is HOTTER than yesterday.
an adjective used to compare three or more items; example: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.
tells what the subject of a sentence does or did; example: She SLEEPS every day. She SLEPT every day.
joins the subject and the predicate
contains the main verb and helping verbs
the most important verb in a phrase
is not the main verb in a phrase; are added to another verb to make the meaning clearer; includes any forms of TO BE
present / present participle
play / (is, are, am) playing --> adding -ing used with form be
past / past participle
played / (have, has, had) played --> adding -ed or -d with form have
verb that tells the time of the action or being
verb that tells something that is happening now; example: Dena LAUGHS at the jokes.
verb that tells something that happened in the past; example: Dena LAUGHED at the jokes.
tells that something will happen in the future; uses WILL with the verb; example: Dena WILL LAUGH at the jokes.
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS
tense with the past participle and helping verb HAD
tense with the past participle and helping verb WILL HAVE
does not end with -ed to form the past participle; examples; (is, are, am / was / were) ; (has, have / had / had) ; (do, does / did / done) ; ate, grown, bought, sold, spent, taken, etc.
noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb; tells who or what receives the action; example: Bobby loved his PARENTS.
tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done; example: Jack showed the DOG kindness.
noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Lassie has been a CELEBRITY for decades.
action verb followed by a noun or pronoun that receives the action; example: I KNOW the story.
includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that do not take an object; example: My friends CRIED.
words that describes verbs, adjectives, or other -----; answers when, where, how, to what extent; modifies a verb, adjective, or -----; tells how, when, where, or to what extent; example: Our skates move EFFORTLESSLY. (how) or The ice is glistening NOW. (when) *most ----- are formed by adding -ly to an adjective*
adverbs such as lower, nearer, more slowly; faster, more seriously
adverbs such as lowest, nearest, most slowly; fastest, most seriously
words that mean no; common negatives: no, not, never, nowhere, nothing, nobody, no one, neither, scarcely, barely; use only one in a sentence
shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence; example: I walked ALONG the beach.
object of the preposition
is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition; example: The sands of the BEACH were white.
is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between: example: Who lives IN THAT HOUSE?
prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun; examples: The killer whale is a species of PORPOISE. (tells what kind of species) or That whale WITH THE UNUSUAL MARKINGS is our favorite. (tells which whale)
prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; examples: The porpoises performed WITH EASE. (tells how) or Shows begin ON THE HOUR. (tells when)
connects words or word groups
AND, BUT, and OR join ideas that are similar; remember to place a comma before you write sentences; example: Craig gets in trouble, BUT he usually gets out of it.
EITHER/OR, NEITHER/NOR, BOTH/AND join pairs of ideas
connects an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses; examples: since, before, unless, however
a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling; example: WELL, Snoopy is at the typewriter again.
a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.
phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers
a verb ending in -ing and functions as a noun; example: ESTIMATING is an important mathematics skill.
includes the gerund, its object, and its object's modifiers; WRITING A BEST SELLER is the goal of every novelist.
verb that functions as an adjective; example: A RUNNING horse galloped down the road.
phrase that includes the participle, its modifier, and its objects; example: The child, FLASHING A MISCHIEVOUS SMILE, turned and walked away.
common noun that names a group with more than one member; examples: jury, brigade, staff
a common noun that cannot be easily separated into countable units; examples: water, sand, gold, cement, air
points out particular person, place, or things
points out person, places, or things, but less clearly;
pronoun that asks a question; examples: who, whom, whose, what, which
pronoun that ends in -self or -selves
names things you can see and touch; examples: pizza, kitten, diamond
names an idea, quality, action, or feeling
emphasizes its antecedent; adds emphasis to pronoun or named noun; examples: I MYSELF will go.
takes the place of a noun or nouns; they show number and gender; example: singular: I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its / plural: we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirs
linked group of words preceding noun or pronoun; examples: who, which, that
about, behind, above, across, as, after, between, beyond, beside, despite, during, for, inside, in, near, off, outside, onto, opposite, around, against, along, at, before, below, beneath, but, by, down, except, from, into, like, out, over, of, opposite, past, toward, under, upon within, since, through, until, underneath, with
a, and, the
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
parts of speech
adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbs
types of nouns
common, proper, compound, collective
types of verbs
action, linking, helping, phrases
types of helping verbs
do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must
common linking verbs
be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become, am, are, is, was, were, am being, can be, have been
types of adjectives
common, proper, compound, articles, indefinite articles
types of indefinite articles
another, each, neither, many, all, more, other, both, either, few, several, any, most, some
common adverbs (non -ly)
afterward, already, quick, hard, never, today, even, low, rather, tomorrow, how, now, then, yesterday, late, often, almost, back, long, soon, when, here, next, still, where, far, more, slow, too, fast, near, so
I, me, mine, my, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, he, she, him, her, his, it, them, them, their, theirs, its
types of demonstrative pronouns
this, that, these, those
types of indefinite pronouns
anything, no one, all, some, several