Parts of Speech

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Review parts of speech that you learned in class, as well as some additional ones we have not studied.

noun

a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea; example: boy, Juan, river, Texas

common noun

names any person place, thing or idea; example: pilot, city, park

proper noun

names a particular person, place, thing, or idea; example: Amelia Earhart, Chicago, Katmai National Park

singular noun

names one person, place, or thing; example: principal, cafeteria, stereos

plural noun

names more than one person, place, or thing; example: principals, switches, communities, toys, leaves, roofs, radios, potatoes, feet, sheep

possessive noun

noun that shows ownership or possession

singular possessive noun

shows ownership by one person or thing; example: my aunt's house

plural possessive noun

shows ownership by more than one person or thing; example: my friends' parents

pronoun

takes the place of one or more noun; example: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, it

antecedent

when using pronoun, the noun to which it refers; example: HE heard. NICHOLAS heard. // pronouns should agree with number and gender; example: NICHOLAS heard a LIBRARIAN tell STORIES.

subject pronoun

used as a subject or part of a the subject in a sentence; WE are ready to go.

object pronoun

is used as a direct/indirect object in a sentence; example: Rebecca gave ME a gift.

possessive pronoun

shows ownership or possession of something; example: Jerome is learning about HIS ancestors.

reflexive pronoun

usually refers to the subject of a sentence; examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves

indefinite pronoun

a pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea; examples: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no one

who

use as a subject pronoun; example: _____ is not going?

whom

use as an object pronoun; example: To _____ am I speaking?

adjective

a word that modifies, or describes, a noun or pronoun; example: We saw LAZY lions beneath a SHADY tree.

articles

adjectives 'a,' 'an,' and 'the'

proper adjective

an adjective that is formed from a proper noun; example: Africa --> African; Scotland --> Scottish

demonstrative adjective

tells which one; examples: this, that, these, and those

predicate adjective

an adjective that follows a linking verb and describes the subject of a sentence; includes forms of taste, look, feel, smell, appear, seem, and become; example: I look TIRED, but I feel FINE.

positive adjective

adjective used when no comparison being made; example: This is a HOT day.

comparative adjective

an adjective used to compare two items; example: Today is HOTTER than yesterday.

superlative adjective

an adjective used to compare three or more items; example: This is the HOTTEST day of the year.

action verb

tells what the subject of a sentence does or did; example: She SLEEPS every day. She SLEPT every day.

linking verb

joins the subject and the predicate

verb phrase

contains the main verb and helping verbs

main verb

the most important verb in a phrase

helping verb

is not the main verb in a phrase; are added to another verb to make the meaning clearer; includes any forms of TO BE

present / present participle

play / (is, are, am) playing --> adding -ing used with form be

past / past participle

played / (have, has, had) played --> adding -ed or -d with form have

verb tense

verb that tells the time of the action or being

present tense

verb that tells something that is happening now; example: Dena LAUGHS at the jokes.

past tense

verb that tells something that happened in the past; example: Dena LAUGHED at the jokes.

future tense

tells that something will happen in the future; uses WILL with the verb; example: Dena WILL LAUGH at the jokes.

present perfect

tense with the past participle and helping verb HAVE and HAS

past perfect

tense with the past participle and helping verb HAD

future perfect

tense with the past participle and helping verb WILL HAVE

irregular verb

does not end with -ed to form the past participle; examples; (is, are, am / was / were) ; (has, have / had / had) ; (do, does / did / done) ; ate, grown, bought, sold, spent, taken, etc.

direct object

noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb; tells who or what receives the action; example: Bobby loved his PARENTS.

indirect object

tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done; example: Jack showed the DOG kindness.

predicate nominative

noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Lassie has been a CELEBRITY for decades.

transitive verb

action verb followed by a noun or pronoun that receives the action; example: I KNOW the story.

intransitive verb

includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that do not take an object; example: My friends CRIED.

adverb

words that describes verbs, adjectives, or other -----; answers when, where, how, to what extent; modifies a verb, adjective, or -----; tells how, when, where, or to what extent; example: Our skates move EFFORTLESSLY. (how) or The ice is glistening NOW. (when) *most ----- are formed by adding -ly to an adjective*

comparative adverb

adverbs such as lower, nearer, more slowly; faster, more seriously

superlative adverb

adverbs such as lowest, nearest, most slowly; fastest, most seriously

negatives

words that mean no; common negatives: no, not, never, nowhere, nothing, nobody, no one, neither, scarcely, barely; use only one in a sentence

preposition

shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence; example: I walked ALONG the beach.

object of the preposition

is the noun or pronoun that follows the preposition; example: The sands of the BEACH were white.

prepositional phrase

is made up of a preposition, the object of the preposition, and all the words in between: example: Who lives IN THAT HOUSE?

adjective phrase

prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun; examples: The killer whale is a species of PORPOISE. (tells what kind of species) or That whale WITH THE UNUSUAL MARKINGS is our favorite. (tells which whale)

adverb phrase

prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb; examples: The porpoises performed WITH EASE. (tells how) or Shows begin ON THE HOUR. (tells when)

conjunction

connects words or word groups

coordinating conjunction

AND, BUT, and OR join ideas that are similar; remember to place a comma before you write sentences; example: Craig gets in trouble, BUT he usually gets out of it.

correlative conjunction

EITHER/OR, NEITHER/NOR, BOTH/AND join pairs of ideas

subordinating conjunction

connects an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses; examples: since, before, unless, however

interjections

a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling; example: WELL, Snoopy is at the typewriter again.

infinitive

a verb that functions as a noun or adjective; the word TO precedes the verb in an infinitive; example: Someday, I would like TO WRITE beautiful poetry.

infinitive phrase

phrase that includes the infinitive, it's objects, and the objects modifiers

gerund

a verb ending in -ing and functions as a noun; example: ESTIMATING is an important mathematics skill.

gerund phrase

includes the gerund, its object, and its object's modifiers; WRITING A BEST SELLER is the goal of every novelist.

participle

verb that functions as an adjective; example: A RUNNING horse galloped down the road.

participle phrase

phrase that includes the participle, its modifier, and its objects; example: The child, FLASHING A MISCHIEVOUS SMILE, turned and walked away.

collective noun

common noun that names a group with more than one member; examples: jury, brigade, staff

mass noun

a common noun that cannot be easily separated into countable units; examples: water, sand, gold, cement, air

demonstrative pronoun

points out particular person, place, or things

indefinite pronoun

points out person, places, or things, but less clearly;

interrogative pronoun

pronoun that asks a question; examples: who, whom, whose, what, which

reflexive pronoun

pronoun that ends in -self or -selves

concrete noun

names things you can see and touch; examples: pizza, kitten, diamond

abstract noun

names an idea, quality, action, or feeling

intensive pronoun

emphasizes its antecedent; adds emphasis to pronoun or named noun; examples: I MYSELF will go.

personal pronoun

takes the place of a noun or nouns; they show number and gender; example: singular: I, me, my, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its / plural: we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, they, them, their, theirs

relative pronoun

linked group of words preceding noun or pronoun; examples: who, which, that

common prepositions

about, behind, above, across, as, after, between, beyond, beside, despite, during, for, inside, in, near, off, outside, onto, opposite, around, against, along, at, before, below, beneath, but, by, down, except, from, into, like, out, over, of, opposite, past, toward, under, upon within, since, through, until, underneath, with

common articles

a, and, the

coordinating conjunctions

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

parts of speech

adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbs

types of nouns

common, proper, compound, collective

types of verbs

action, linking, helping, phrases

types of helping verbs

do, does, did, have, has, had, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must

common linking verbs

be, feel, grow, seem, smell, remain, appear, sound, stay, look, taste, turn, become, am, are, is, was, were, am being, can be, have been

types of adjectives

common, proper, compound, articles, indefinite articles

types of indefinite articles

another, each, neither, many, all, more, other, both, either, few, several, any, most, some

common adverbs (non -ly)

afterward, already, quick, hard, never, today, even, low, rather, tomorrow, how, now, then, yesterday, late, often, almost, back, long, soon, when, here, next, still, where, far, more, slow, too, fast, near, so

common pronouns

I, me, mine, my, we, us, our, ours, you, your, yours, he, she, him, her, his, it, them, them, their, theirs, its

types of demonstrative pronouns

this, that, these, those

types of indefinite pronouns

anything, no one, all, some, several

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