simple squamous epithelium
for protection; skin, lining of vessels, heart, lungs, body cavity membranes, inner surface of ear drum
simple cuboidal epithelium
for secretion; kidney, glands, ducts
simple columnar epithelium
for absorbtion; stomach, small intestines
pseudostratified columnar epithelium - ciliated
movement of mucus, other particles; larynx, trachea, bronchii, auditory tubes
simple columnar epithelium - ciliated
movement of mucus, other particles; respiratory tract, auditory tubes, uterus
stratified squamous epithelium
protect against abrasion; skin, corneas, mouth, through, anus, vagina
stretching; urinary tract
areolar connective tissue
loose packing, support, nourishment; throughout the body
dense regular collagenous connective tissue
strong pulling force; tendons, ligaments
adipose connective tissue
cushion, insulate, energy storage; subcutaneous areas, renal pelvis, kidneys, mammary glands
support, strength; outer portions of all bones, the shafts of long bones
provides rigidity, flexibility; trachea, bronchii, ribs, nose, embryo skeleton
rigidity with more flexibility; external ears, epiglottis, auditory tubes
somewhat flexible, capable of withstanding considerable pressure; intervertebral disks, pubis, articular disks of knee, temporal mandibular joints
movement of the body; voluntary control, striated, fibers parallel, multi-nuclear; attaches to bone
pumps the blood; involuntary, striated; branching, short, cylindrical; nucleus at periphery; heart
regulates organ size, forces fluid through tubes, controls light in eye, goosebumps; involuntary, smooth (non-striated), tapered (spindle or fusiform), central nuclei; stomach and intestine, skin and eyes
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
What are the embryonic tissue germ layers?
Which embryonic tissue germ layer is the outer layer and becomes skin, nervous tissue?
Which embryonic tissue germ layer is the middle layer; muscle, bone, & blood vessels?
Which embryonic tissue germ layer is the inner layer; lining of digestive tract and derivatives?
(1) structure of cells - shape, (2) composition of extracellular matrix - liquid, solid, semisolid, (3) function of cells
What are the classifications of epithelial and connective tissues?
mainly by function
How is muscle and nervous tissue classified?
epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous
What are the four tissue types?
diffusion, protection, avascular, free surface; found in linings of digestive tract, vessels, cavity linings
What are the descriptions of epithelial tissue?
(1) protection, (2) barrier, (3) permit passage, (4) secretion, (5) absorption
What are the five functions of epithelial tissue?
protects skin, underlying structures
Example of the protection function (epithelial tissue)
prevents loss of water from body through skin
Example of the barrier function (epithelial tissue)
oxygen/carbon dioxide exchanged between air & blood by diffusion
Example of the permits passage of substances function (epithelial tissue)
sweat glands, mucus glands, pancreas enzymes
Example of the secretion function (epithelial tissue)
cell membranes have carrier molecules that regulate absorption
Example of the absorption function (epithelial tissue)
simple, stratified, pseudostratified
What are the epithelial classification - number of layers
squamous (simple, stratified), cuboidal (simple, stratified), columnar (simple, stratified, pseudostratified)
What are the epithelial classification - shape
What type of tissue is mostly matrix (non-fibrous protein), vascular/avascular?
"to destroy, break down"
root word meaning "cartilage"
root word meaning "bone"
muscle to muscle or muscle to bone
tendon connects . . .
bone to bone
ligament connects . . .
(1) enclose and separate, (2) connects tissues/bones, (3) support and movement, (4) stores, (5) cushion & insulate, (6) transport, (7) protect
What are the 8 functions of connective tissue?
separates muscle, nerves, veins, & arteries
Examples of the enclose & separate function (connective tissue)
tendons = muscle to muscle, muscle to bone
ligaments = bone to bone
Examples of the connects tissue function (connective tissue)
bones support the body, cartilage supports the nose, ears, surfaces of joints
Examples of the support & movement function (connective tissue)
adipose tissue stores high-energy molecules (fat); bones store minerals
Examples of the stores function (connective tissue)
Where does the function cushion & insulate occur?
blood transports substances to the body
Examples of the transport function (connective tissue)
cells of immune system - protect bones - protects inside structures
Examples of the protect function (connective tissue)
cells ingestion of solid substance (other cells, foreign particles, etc)
cells rare in cartilage, abundant in loose connective tissue
cells beneath membranes in loose connective tissue; contain enzymes released in response to injury
white blood cells
cells continuously moving from blood vessels to connective tissue; part of immune system
cells from monocytes (WBC type), may be fixed or wandering, phagocytize foreign or injured cells
undifferentiated mesenchymal cells
"stem cells" form adult cell types like fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells
What fibers are collagen, 6% of body weight, like rope with 3 polypeptides, very strong & flexible but NOT elastic?
What fibers have very fine collagen fibers, short & thin and branch to form network?
What fibers contain protein "elastin" and looks like coiled springs that are interwoven?
What molecules (hyaluronic acid & proteoglycans) constitute most of ground substance in matrix?
What molecules hold the proteoglycan agregates?
What is the area between cells in tissue known as?
collagen fibers, reticular fibers, elastic fibers, non-fibrous molecules, adhesive molecules
types of matrix substances
embryonic connective tissue
"mesenchyme", forms in embryo during 3rd & 4th week; 8th week become specialized adult cells; leftover connective tissue = umbilical cord = Wharton's jelly
adult connective tissue
loose connective tissue (sometimes referred to as areolar)
forms lacy network
characteristics of areolar tissue
loosely arranged collagen fibers - packing material of most organs; yellow (white) most abundant (white at birth, turns yellow with age); brown found in specific areas like axillae, neck, & near kidneys
characteristics of adipose tissue
embryonic connective tissue (mesenchyme); adult
classification of connective tissue
some elastic fibers, forms framework of lymphatic tissue
characteristics of reticular tissue
loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue
two types of adult connective tissue
regular & irregular connective tissue
two types of dense connective tissue
dense regular connective tissue
two types: collagenous and elastic; protein fibers oriented in one direction, eg. tendons, ligaments; with parallel bundles of collagen fibers
dense irregular connective tissue
two types: collagenous and elastic; fibers in meshwork & randomly oriented; in dermis, kidney spleen
found in bone marrow; red in children, yellow in adults
liquid matrix, carrying food, O2, & waste product
cells called chondrocytes (in lacunae); matrix has protein fiber, round substance, and fluid; no blood vessels so heals slowly
found in brain, spinal cord, nerves; unit of structure is "neuron"; conducts electrical signals
cell body, dendrites, axons
three parts of nervous tissue
support cells of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
cell body (nervous tissue)
The part of the neuron that is the site of general cell functions
The part of the neuron that receives action
The part of the neuron that conducts action potentials away from the cell body