AP Vocabulary unit #1

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33 terms · AP Vocabulary unit #1

anatomy

study of structure

physiology

study of functions of living organism and its parts

how the body works

acid

substance that ionizes in water to release hydrogen ions; substance with a pH of less than 7

acidosis

the condition in which there is an excessive proportion of acid in the blood and thus an abnormally low blood pH.

opposite of alkalosis

alkalosis

condition in which there is an excessive proportion of alkali (base) in the blood

opposit of acidosis

aponeurosis

broad, flat sheet of connective tissue

articulation

joint

atrophy

wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of part;
a=with and trophy=food

base

substance that ionizes in water to decrease the number of hydrogen ions

aka = alkaline

buffer

compound that combines with an acid or with a base to form a weaker acid or base, thereby lessening the change in hydrogen ion concentration that would occur w/o the buffer

crenation

The condition or state of being crenate.

A process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink and acquire a scalloped surface.

enzyme

biochemical catalystthat allows chemical reactions to take place; functional proteinsthat regulate various metabolic pathways of the body

fatigue

Physiology . temporary diminution of the irritability or functioning of organs, tissues, or cells after excessive exertion or stimulation.

goblet cells

gland that produces mucus. ex. respiratory & digestive

epithelial cell that produces and secretes large amounts of mucus

hemolysis

The destruction of red blood cells, caused by disruption of the cell membrane and resulting in the release of hemoglobin. Hemolysis is seen in some types of anemia, which can be either inherited or acquired, as by exposure to toxins or by the presence of antibodies that attack red blood cells.

hemopoiesis

the formation of blood or of blood cells in the living body

hypertrophy

increased size of an organ or part caused by an increase in the size of its cells

inorganic

chemical constituents that do not contain both carbon and hydrogen

does not contain C to C or C to H bond
ex. water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrolytes

insertion

attachment of a muscle to the bone that it moves when contraction occurs
compare to origin

the mode or place of attachment of an organ or part
a section of genetic material inserted into an existing gene sequence
the mutational process producing a genetic insertion

lyse

to cause dissolution or destruction of cells by lysins.

to undergo lysis.

melanin

brown pigment primarily in skin and hair

organic

referring to chemicals that contain covalently bound carbon and hydrogen atoms and are involved in metabolic reactions

origin

attachment of a muscle to the bone, which does not move when contraction occurs

compare to insertion

ossification

bone formation

paralysis

loss of power of motion, especially voluntary motion

pH

units by which acid and base concentrations (relative H+ ion concentrations) are measured; scale ranges from 0 (extremely acidic, high H+ concentration) to 14 (extremely basic or alkaline, low H+ concentration)

posture

position of the body; often refers to the erect position of the body maintained unconsciously

regeneration

process of replacing missing tissue with new tissue by means of cell division

sinus

space or cavity

stimulus

excitant or irritating agent that induces a response

subcutaneous

(hyperdermis) beneath skin,not part of skin
connects skin to lower layers

tendon

bands or cords of fibrous connective tissue that attach a muscle to a bone or other structure

tone

a. the normal state of tension or responsiveness of the organs or tissues of the body.
b. that state of the body or of an organ in which all its functions are performed with healthy vigor.
c. normal sensitivity to stimulation

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