cholesterol

All steroid hormones are derived from...

vitamin D

All steroid hormones contain the same cyclopentanophenanthrene ring, with the exception of...

cylcopentanophenanthrene

All steroid hormones, except for vitamin D, contain a ______ ring.

cholesterol

an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues

pregnenolone

6 carbons are cleaved from C27 cholesterol (in a RATE-LIMITING step) to yield C21, which is called...

pregnanes

Steroids with 21 carbon atoms are called...

pregnenolone

Most of the important mammalian steroid hormones are made from a precursor called...

androstanes

Steroids with 19 carbon atoms are called...

estranes

Steroids with 18 carbon atoms are called...

vitamin D

with the exception of ________, all steroid hormones contain the same cyclopentanophenanthrene ring and atomic numbering system as cholesterol.

testosterone

Name this molecule.

progesterone

Name this molecule.

pregnenolone

Name this molecule.

estradiol

Name this molecule.

cortisol

Name this molecule.

aldosterone

Name this molecule.

vitamin A

The precursor for the steroid hormone retinoic acid is...

cholesterol

The precursor for the steroid hormone vitamin D is...

intracellular

All the steroid hormones exert their action by passing through the plasma membrane and binding to ________ receptors.

inside

Do steroid hormones act on receptors INSIDE the cell or OUTSIDE the cell?

false

True or false: steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface.

true

True or false: steroid hormones pass through the plasma membranes of target cells.

thyroid

______ hormones are similar to steroid hormones; both types have receptor complexes that exert their action by binding to specific nucleotide sequences in the DNA of responsive genes

hormone response elements

The specific nucleotide sequences in DNA that thyroid and steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind to are called...

HRE

Acronym for hormone response element.

transcription

Thyroid and steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind the DNA and cause changes in the rate of _______ for associated genes.

progesterone

Like testosterone, _______ synthesis is stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

testosterone

Like progesterone, _______ synthesis is stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Luteinizing

The synthesis of both progesterone and testosterone is stimulated by ________ hormone.

Luteinizing

The biosynthesis of progesterone is stimulated by ___________ hormone.

LH

What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of testosterone?

adrenocorticotropic

The synthesis of cortisol is stimulated by ________ hormone.

ACTH

What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol?

follicle stimulating

The synthesis of estradiol is stimulated by ________ hormone.

FSH

What is the acronym of the hormone that stimulates the synthesis of estradiol?

estradiol

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates the synthesis of ________.

aldosterone

Angiotensin II/III stimulate the synthesis of ________.

angiotensin II/III

The synthesis of aldosterone is stimulated by ________.

committing

The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal _________, regulated, and rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis.

regulated

The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, __________, and rate-limiting step in steroid biosynthesis.

rate-limiting

The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, regulated, and __________ step in steroid biosynthesis.

biosynthesis

The cleavage of a 6-carbon group from cholesterol is the principal committing, regulated, and rate-limiting step in steroid _____________.

cholesterol desmolase

The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)

20,22-desmolase

And ____________.

20,22-desmolase

The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)

cholesterol desmolase

And ____________.

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc)

The enzyme responsible for C6 cleavage has three names, which are:

cholesterol desmolase

20,22-desmolase

And ____________.

mitochondria

P450-linked side chain cleaving enzyme (P450ssc) is found in the __________ of steroid-producing cells.

androgens

The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

glucocorticoids

mineralocorticoids

and....

mineralocorticoids

The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

glucocorticoids

androgens

and....

glucocorticoids

The adrenal cortex is responsible for production of 3 major classes of steroid hormones:

mineralocorticoids

androgens

and....

mineralocorticoids

________ are a class of steroid hormone that regulate the body levels of sodium and potassium.

glucocorticoids

_________ are a class of steroid hormone that regulate carbohydrate metabolism

androgens

____________ are a class of steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex whose actions are similar to that of steroids produced by the male gonads

adrenal cortex

glucoocorticoids are produced in the...

adrenal cortex

mineralocorticoids are produced in the...

adrenal cortex

androgens are produced in the...

Addison

Adrenal insufficiency is known as _______ disease.

adrenal

Addison disease is a result of ________ insufficiency.

zona reticularis

The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona glomerulosa

zona fasciculata

and...

zona fasciculata

The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona glomerulosa

zona reticularis

and...

zona glomerulosa

The adrenal cortex is composed of 3 main tissue regions:

zona fasciculata

zona reticularis

and...

cytochrome P450

Many of the enzymes of adrenal steroid hormone synthesis are of the class called ________ _______ enzymes

CYP

The standardized nomenclature for the P450 class of enzymes is to use the abbreviation _______.

CYP11A1

In standardized nomenclature, cytochrome P450ssc would be called...

pregnenolone

In order for cholesterol to be converted to ___________ in the adrenal cortex it must be transported into the mitochondria where CYP11A1 resides.

mitochondria

In order for cholesterol to be converted to pregnenolone in the adrenal cortex it must be transported into the ___________ where CYP11A1 resides.

steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)

In the adrenal cortex, the transport of cholesterol into mitochondria is mediated by...

rate-limiting

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports cholesterol into mitochondria. This is important because it is the ________ step in steroidogenesis.

transports

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) _________ cholesterol into mitochondria.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

_____________, of the hypothalamus, regulates the hormone production of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis.

zona glomerulosa

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), of the hypothalamus, regulates the hormone production of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis, but NOT that of the _________.

false

True or false: hormone production in the zona glomerulosa is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).

true

True or false: hormone production in the zona fasciculata is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).

true

True or false: hormone production in the zona reticularis is regulated by Adrenocortioctropic hormone (ACTH).

liver

Angiotensinogen is derived by the _____.

kidneys

Renin is an enzyme produced by the ________.

renin

Angiotensinogen is converted to Angiotensins I and II by the enzyme _______.

Angiotensins II/III

Hormone production in the zona glomerulosa is regulated by...

aldosterone

If you increased levels of Angiotensins II/III, the end result in the adrenal cortex would be increased levels of the hormone _________.

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