Cognitive Development in Infants/Toddlerhood/Early Childhood

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what are the main cognitive theories/theorist for this stage?

behaviorism
piaget
info processing
vygotsky

what is behaviorism?

we learn though rewards and punishments

what is consrtuctivism?

developing things on your own

what was Piaget's theory?

children learn from constructing their own knowledge as the manipulate and explore their world.

what are schemes?

ideas/actions that infants develop to learn and explore

what is adaptation?

building schemes through interaction with environment

what is assimilation?

interpretation that is congruent with current schemes

what is accommodation?

new schemes are created and old ones are adjusted to produce a better fit with experiences

was Piaget's theory continuous or discontinuous?

discontinuous

what are the 4 stages of Piaget's theory?

sensorimotor
pre operational
concrete operational
formal operational

what happens in the sensorimotor stage?

0-2 yrs.
adapting schemes to problem solving
6 sub-stages
object permanence
goal-directed behavior
imitation
circular reaction
a not b error

what happens in the pre operational stage?

2-7 yrs.
mental operations replace sensorimotor activity
symbols and language
make believe play
egocentrism dies down
animistic thinking
trouble with classification and conservation

what are the three areas where Piaget may not be legit?

some things he said occur much earlier
cognitive development doesn't happen as structured
researchers say some infants have built-in equipment

what is Vygotsky's theory?

knowledge is constructed through interaction with culture and others instead of exploration

is vygotsky's theory continuous or discontinuous?

both: cognitive is continuous, and language is dis.

what three parts of the mental system does information processing use?

sensory register
working/short-term memory
long term memory

how does information processing work in early childhood?

attention increases (planning)
literacy increases (math development)
strategies improve (goals)

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