American History Unit 1, Chapter 1

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Olmec

people who created a thriving civilization in the humid rain forest along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico; fell around 400 BC

Maya

built a dynamic culture in Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula between AD 250 and 900 ; appeared after the collapse of the Olmec around 400 BC
 Built dynamic culture in Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula between 250 and 900 A.D.
 Ancestors of the Aztecs

Aztecs

swept into the valley of Mexico in the 1200s

Inca

Around AD 1400, rose among the ruins of earlier societies to create a glittering empire that stretched nearly 2,500 miles along the mountainous western coast of South America

Hohokam-Anasazi

Lived in deserts of southwest, learned to farm the desert lands; began introducing domesticated crops such as corn, beans, and squash to the Southwest desert lands.
 Hohokam Settled in the valleys of the Salt and Gila rivers in what is now central Arizona

 Anasazi settled in what is now the Four Corners region of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Nevada

Adena-Hopewell-Mississippian

developed complex societies involving trade; known for building earthen mounds

Kwakiutl

these people hunted for shellfish, whales, sea otters, and seals; lived from Southern Alaska through Oregon

Pueblo

lived in very harsh climates;

Iroquois

Hunted game animals such as turkey, deer, and bear;

Kinship

strong ties among family members which ensured the continuation of tribal customs and rituals

Division of Labor

assignment of different tasks by genter, age, or status. Formed an early style of government

savannah

dry grassland dotted with trees and bushes

Islam

founded in Arabia in 622 by the prophet Muhammed

plantations

farms on which a single crop, usually one that requires much human labor, is grown on a large scale

Songhai

empire which in the mid-1400s gained controle of the trade from Mali

Benin

dominated a large region around the Niger delta

Kongo

consisted of a series of small kingdoms organized under a single leader called the manikongo

hierarchy

social system arranged by class

nuclear family

household made up of a mother, father, and their children

crusades

failure to rescue the "Holy Land"; took place in the years ____________________.

Reformation

divided Christianity in Western Europe into Catholicism and Protestantism

Joint-stock companies

permitted numerous inventors to pool their wealth

lineage

line of common descent, which formed the basis of most aspects of life in rural West Africa

colonization

the establishment of outlying settlements that are controlled by the parent country

Hunters and Gatherers were some of the first people to arrive in the Americas. Explain when/how

Suspected that these people came by foot, but some may have come down the Pacific Coast in boats made of bones and hides of animals, like kayaks. People were big-game hunters, and came during the time of the Ice Age. After the Ice Age, they collected nuts, wild rice, chokecherries, gooseberries, and currants. Mostly developed in North America, but began to move south into what is now Arizona and Mexico, and eventually into South America.

The development of Agriculture affected the settlement of the first people in America. Why? When? How?

Between 10,000 and 5,000 years ago, people began raising plants as food in what is now central Mexico. The techniques of agriculture spread throughout the Americas as people in each region began to produce their food from the land. This made it possible for people to remain in one place instead of roaming as hunters and gatherers, and they began to store surplus food.

Give two examples of how ancient societies demonstrated their resourcefulness in adapting to their physical environments.

a. Hohokam and Anasazi grew corn, beans, and squash in the desert. This allowed them to live independently and without moving around a lot.
b. Adena, Hopewell and Mississippian societies developed trade systems and societies. These people also built large structures, earthen mounds, such as burial mounds and stone animals.

13. Provide two examples of how Native American societies drew upon or honored their cultural heritage.

a. Performed daily rituals involving the farmers, hunters and fishers.
b. The people honored spirits. They saw them as both physical and non-physical.

Describe three broad cultural patterns that the diverse Native American societies shared.

a. Native Americans used a. trade to get familiar with one another's ways
b. Native Americans looked upon land as the source of life.
c. Nearly all Native Americans thought of the natural world as filled with spiritual presences

What exchanges of goods and ideas occurred as a result of trade routes across the Sahara?

People brought from North Africa their Islamic faith, gold, pepper, ivory, copper brass, and fine cloth

What were three West African kingdoms that flourished in the late 1400s and early 1500s?

Manikongo, Bakongo, Benin

What three effects did the Crusades have on European society in the 1400s?

a. Sparked an increase in trade
b. Failed to rescue the Holy Land
c. Weakened the power of European Nobles

What were the most significant Portuguese explorations?

Reaching India and Eastern Asia

What methods of colonization, based on earlier models, did Spain use in the Americas?

Establishment of outlying settlements that are controlled by the parent country.

What unfulfilled goal left Columbus disappointed at the end of his life?

He was disappointed because he did not reach China

Prince Henry

He was often called Henry the Navigator. He refused to let superstition interfere with his quest to discover what lands existed along the western coast of Africa.

Christopher Columbus

He got banned from Hispanolia. He left on a voyage and returned 4 years later. Died a disappointed man because he did not make it to China.

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