APES Prerequisite Knowledge

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the summer terms that were required for me to study.

Radioactive Decay

the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation, the breakdown of a radioactive element, releasing particles and energy

Half Life

length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay

Law of Conservation Matter

matter not created or destroyed in any change

1st law of Thermodynamics

the law that states that energy/matter cannot be created nor destroyed

2nd law of Thermodynamics

the quality of matter or energy gradually deteriorates over time, while the quantity remains the same

Entropy

a measure of unusable energy within a closed or isolated system

Organism

one member of a single species

Species

group of similar organisms that can bread and produce fertile offspring

Population

a group of the same species living together

Community

many different populations in a specific environment

Ecosystem

all the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment

Kinetic energy

energy of motion

Potential energy

stored energy

Organic

-compounds that contain carbon,
-relating or belonging to the class of chemical compounds having a carbon basis

Inorganic

relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis

Natural

existing in or produced by nature

Synthetic

a compound made artificially by chemical reactions

Producer/ Autotrophs

an organism that makes its own food

Decomposers

organisms that break down wastes and dead organisms and return raw materials to the environment

Consumers/Heterotrophs

an organism that obtains energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains.

Rocks

minerals forming a solid

Minerals

building blocks of rocks

Climate

the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time

Weather

the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation

Photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

Cellular Respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

Aerobic

requires oxygen

Anaerobic

without oxygen

Mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

Gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

Trait

specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another

Chromosome

threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

Gene Pool

combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

Natural Selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

Biodiversity

the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)

Extinction

no longer in existence

Plate Tectonics

the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust

Weathering

The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.

Climate Change

a change in the world's climate

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