What do terminal branches with fibers from the superior rami (C5,C6) innervate?
Proximal muscles of the upper limb (pectoral girdle and shoulder)
What do terminal branches with fibers from the inferior rami (C8,T1) innervate?
Distal muscles (hand)
What do terminal branches with fibers from the intermediate rami (C6-C8) innervate?
Muscles that act at the elbow and wrist.
What are the four plexuses of the body?
Cervical (C1-C4) Brachial (C5-T1) Lumbar (L1-L4) Sacral (L4-S3)
What is the significance of the anterior divisions?
Innervation of muscles of anterior arm, forearm and the hand which act as flexors. (Musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, lateral and medial pectoral nerves)
What is the significance of the posterior divisions?
Innervation of muscles of posterior arm and forearm that act mainly as extensors. (Axillary, radial, upper, middle and lower subscapular nerves.)
What spinal cord levels supply axons to the Musculocutaneous Nerve?
What spinal cord levels supply axons to the Median Nerve?
Where does the Median Nerve pass through the carpal tunnel?
Between the flexor retinaculum and the flexor tendons.
What spinal cord levels supply axons to the Ulnar Nerve?
Where does the Ulnar nerve pass through at the wrist to the hand?
The Canal of Guyon between the pisiform bone and the hook of the hamate anterior to the carpal tunnel
What spinal cord levels supply axons to the Axillary Nerve?
Where does the Axillary nerve pass to innervate its muscles?
Quadrangular space around the surgical neck of the humerous.
What spinal cord levels supply axons to the Radial Nerve?
What part of the skin over the upper extremity does the Musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
Lateral aspect of the arm by its continuation as Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous after innervating the muscles of the anterior brachial.
What part of the skin over the upper extremity does the Ulnar nerve innervate?
Medial side of the palm, dorsum of hand, dorsal and palmar aspect of the little finger and medial half of the ring finger.
What part of the skin over the upper extremity does the Axillary nerve innervate?
Skin of the arm covering the attachment of the deltoid to the humerus.
What part of the skin over the upper extremity does the Radial nerve innervate?
Posterior arm, lateral forearm, lateral dorsal hand and dorsal lateral 3 digits at the PIP (Proximal Interphalangeal) joints.
What is the continuation of Musculocutaneous after it innervates the muscles of the anterior arm?
Lateral Antebrachial Cutaneous
What are the branches of the Median Nerve.
Anterior Interosseous, Recurrent branch to thenar muscles, Muscular branches distal to carpal tunnel, Common Palmar digital, Proper digital cutaneous, and Palmar cutaneous.
What are the branches of the Ulnar nerve?
Superficial and Deep Ulan branches.
What are the branches of the Radial nerve?
Superficial cutaneous and Deep muscular.
What kind of signals travel through the Dorsal Root?
What kind of signals travel through the Anterior Root?
What are the Supraclavicular branches of the brachial plexus?
Dorsal Scapular, Long Thoracic, Suprascapular, Nerve to Subclavius.
What are the Infraclavicular branches of the brachial plexus?
Lateral Pectoral, Medial Pectoral, Medial Brachial Cutaneous, Medial Antebrachial Cutaneous, Upper Subscapular, Lower Subscapular, Thoracodorsal.
What muscles do the Median Nerve and Branches innervate in the arm?
Pronator teres, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis, Flexor Digitorum Profundus (1/2), Flexor Pollicis Longus, Pronator Quadratus.
What muscles do the Median Nerve and Branches innervate in the hand?
1/2 LOAF (1/2 Lumbricals, Opponens Pollicis, Abductor Pollicis, Flexor Pollicis Brevis)
What muscles do the Ulnar Nerve innervate in the arm?
Flexor Capi Ulnaris and 1/2 Flexor Digitorum Profundus.
What muscles do the Ulnar Nerve innervate in the hand?
All but 1/2 LOAF
What muscles do the Radial Nerve and Branches innervate?
All posterior compartment muscles of arm and forearm, and none in hands.
What is Erb's Paralysis/Waiter's Tip Position?
Injury most commonly as a result from injuries involving C5 and C6 typically do to excessive lateral flexion of the head.
What is Klumpke's Paralysis (claw hand)?
Lower brachial plexus damage at C8-T1 typically do to over stretching off the arm superiorly.
What is Winged scapula?
Damage to the long thoracic nerve as in radical masectomies which stop contraction of seratus anterior.
What is Crutch palsy (wrist-drop)?
Due to excessive and prolonged pressure on the radial nerve causing loss of extension at the wrist. (axillary nerve may also be effect causing loss of abduction of shoulder)