In what clinical condition is there a deepening of the shoulder on the affected side, or shoulder "drop"?
Which portion of the trapezius muscle is frequently involved in neck injuries during an auto accident?
What is the motor innervation for the trapezius muscle?
What is the clinical examination to test for the XI cranial nerve?
shrug against resistance
Difficulty in completely adducting the scapula, or a scapula that is further from the midline could be a sign of damage to what nerve(s)?
Dorsal scapula nerve or C5
Damage to what muscle could result in forward displacement of the shoulder?
The lumbar triangle is bounded by what?
latissimus dorsi, crest of the ilium, external oblique muscle
The triangle of auscultation is bounded by what?
latissimus dorsi, trapezius, vertebral border of the scapula
Damage to the long thoracic nerve or its segmental innervation could result in what condition?
What are three causes of winged scapula?
trauma/subluxation, traction injuries involving the shoulder joing, recumbency for a long period of time
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor
What are the two criteria for muscles belonging to the rotator cuff?
insertion must contribute to forming a cuff around the proximal end of the humerus, participate in lateral or medial rotation of the humerus
Atrophy of the Deltoid, or Crutch Paralysis is due to injury to what nerve?
What is the more lateral of the two spaces created by the long head of the triceps brachii (between teres major and teres minor), and what nerve and arteries are found there?
quadrilateral space, axillary nerve, humeral circumflex arteries
Which space is the more medial of two spaces created by the long head of the triceps brachii (between teres major and teres minor)? And what artery is found there?
Triangular Space, circumflex scapular branch of subscapular artery
What classification of ligament are found superficial to the capsular ligament?
What classification of ligament of found deep to the capsular ligament?
What are the three ligaments associated with the sternoclavicular joint?
anterior and posterior sternoclavicular, interclavicular, costoclavicular
The anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligagment acts like a ______.
Is the anterior and posterior sternoclavicular ligament extrinsic or intrinsic?
The interclavicular ligament acts like a ____.
The interclavicular ligament is intrinsic or extrinsic?
The costoclavicular ligament acts like a _____.
The costoclavicular ligament is intrinsic or extrinsic?
When a dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint occurs it is usually due to ______ ______ on the anterior aspect of the ______ end of the clavical.
direct trauma, sternal
What is the classification of the sternoclavicular joint?
What is the classification of the acromioclavicular joint?
Are the ligaments of the acromioclavicular joint intrinsic or extrinsic?
The superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligament acts like a _____.
The coracoclavicular ligament acts like a _____.
What is the nerve supply to the acromioclavicular joint?
suprascapular and axillary
What joint has the greatest range of motion?
What structure deepends the glenoid cavity?
What is the classification of the glenohumeral joint?
ball and socket
Is the glenohumeral ligament intrinsic or extrinsic?
The glenohumeral ligament acts like a ______.
The coracohumeral ligament limits ______ rotation of the humerus.
The coracohumeral is extrinsic or intrinsic?
The coracohumeral ligament acts like a _____.
Which ligament spans the scapular notch?
What is the nerve supply to the glenohumeral joint?
axillary and suprascapular
What are the three anterior arm muscles?
biceps brachii, coracobrachialis, brachialis
The three anterior arm muscles are all supplied by branches of the __________ nerve.
The most superficial muscle of the anterior arm compartment is the _________.
How many joints can be moved by the biceps brachii?
What is the prime mover for supination of the forearm?
The short head of the biceps brachii ______ the humerus.
The long head of the biceps brachii _______ the humerus.
The biceps brachii is involved in _______ of the forearm at the elbow joint.
What is the clinical term for when a ruptured belly of the biceps brachii forms a ball near the center of the distal anterior aspect of the arm?
In testing the bicipital reflex, you are testing what segmental nerves?
The coracobrachialis is involved in flexion and weak _______ of the humerus.
Which muscle is found deep to the biceps brachii?
What are the two posterior arm muscles?
triceps brachii, anconeus
Which head of the triceps works all of the time? Which are only for extra force?
medial, lateral and long
If the triceps is atrophied, passive extension can be produced by _______.
What is the segmental innervation of the triceps brachii?
What is the classification of the elbow joint?
The lateral or radial collateral ligament of the elbow joint is ______ and acts like a _____.
The medial or ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow joint is ________ and acts like a _______.
The annular ligament is ______ and acts like a _____.
What is the nerve supply to the elbow joint?
What is an abnormal increase in the carrying angle of the forearm?
What is the classification of the radioulnar joint?
The interosseous membran and the oblique cord of the proximal radioulnar joint are _______ and act like _____.
If a child's extremity is held limply at the side or is supported by the opposite hand, you would suspect what kind of injury?
Does the distal or proximal end of the radius ossify first?
Is the distal or proximal end of the radius the last to finish ossification?
Which end of the ulna is the first to begin ossification?
A fracture of the distal end of the radius that occurs when an individual falls on an outstretched hand with the forearm pronated.
What fracture occurs at the distal end of the radius and are due to a fall on the back of the hand?
The carpals of the proximal row are:
scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, pisiform
The carpals of the distal row are:
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
What is the most commonly fractured carpal bone?
Fractures of the phalanges are usually due to _________ ________.
What are the four Anterior Superficial Forearm Muscles?
pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris
What is the common origin of the anterior superficial forearm muscles?
What is the clinical term for the compression of the median nerve in the forearm. The nerve is compressed between heads of the pronator teres.
Pronator Teres Syndrome
The tendon of Flexor Carpi Radialis is the most ________ placed.
Weakness of the flexor carpi radialis can cause an abnormal type of flexion at the hand- this is called what?
What muscle of the anterior superficial arm is missing in about 15% or the population?
The flexor carpi ulnaris is the most ________ situated of the long forearm muscles of the superficial anterior compartment.
What are the two equal prime movers for flexion at the wrist?
flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis
Weakness of the flexor carpi ulnaris results in an abnormal type of flexion of the hand at the wrist joint known as ________ ________.
What muscle makes up the anterior intermediate forearm?
Flexor digitorum superficialis
What are the three deep anterior forearm muscles?
flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus
What is the most laterally placed of the deep anterior forearm muscles?
Flexor Pollicis Longus
Median nerve damage at the proximal part of the forearm is called _________, and damage at the distal part of the forearms is called __________.
pronator teres syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome
Median nerve damage that results in atrophied thenar muscles- the thumb is held close to the 2nd metacarpal.
If you suspect median nerve damage, where would you assess cutaneous sensation (sensory test)?
tip of second digit
What nerve would be involved in "claw hand"?
Compression or damage to the ulnar nerve at the wrist where it passes between the pisiform and the hook of the hamate. The individual will show loss of sensation in the medial one and a half digits and may show atrophy of the hypothenar muscles.
Guyon Tunnel (or Canal Syndrome)
Pressure on the hook of the hamate and compressing the ulnar nerve resulting in sensory loss on the medial side of the hand and weakness of the hypothenar muscles is called?
cyclists (or handlebar) neuropathy
There are six superficial posterior forearm muscles. What are they?
brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum maximus, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpis ulnaris
All muscles in both the superficial and deep posterior forearm are supplied by branches of the ________ nerve.
What is the most laterally placed of the superficial forearm muscles?
What muscle can act as both a pronator and a supinator?
Inflammation and possible degeneration of the common tendon of origin associated with the lateral epicondyle of the humerus is called?
What is the condition in which there is a severe tension on one of the long extensor tendons where it may avulse at it's attachment at a phalanx?
Mallet (or Baseball) finger
There are five deep posterior forearm muscles. What are they?
Supinator, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, extensor indicis
What 2 muscles form the lateral border of the anatomical snuffbox?
abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis
What muscle tendon forms the medial border of the snuffbox?
extensor pollicis longus
A condition in which there is inflammation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis (nd their common fibrous sheath) is called?
Wrist drop, inability to extend the wrist or the digits, and loss of sensation on the dorsum of the forearm and hand are signs of damage to the ______ nerve.
The more lateral branch of the brachial artery is the _______ artery.
The branch of the radial artery which takes part in an arterial anastomosis around the elbow is the _______ branch.
The medial branch of the brachial artery is the _______ artery.
What classification is the distal radioulnar joint?
The anterior and posterior transverse radioulnar ligaments are _______ and act like ________.
What is the classification of the radiocarpal joint?
The dorsal and palmar radiocarpal ligaments are _______ and act like ________.
The ulnar and radial collateral ligaments of the radiocarpal joint are ________ and act like ______ .
What nerves innervate the radiocarpal joint?
median, radial, ulnar
What is the thick band of connective tissue that spans the concave palmar aspect of the wrist?
A sensation of "pins and needles" when one taps over the site of the median nerve distribution at the anterior aspect of the wrist
_______ is used to reproduce the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome by having the patient flex their hands to maximum and holding that position for several minutes.
What is the condition in which there is a shortening and hypertrophy of the palmar aponeurosis?
What are the four thenar muscles?
abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis
What is the most superficial muscle of the thenar muscles that forms the most prominent portion of the thenar eminence?
abductor pollicis brevis
What is the muscle deep to the abductor pollici brevis?
What muscle lies medial and partly deep to the abductor pollicis brevis?
flexor pollicis brevis
What are the three hypothenar muscles, and what nerve supplies them?
abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, opponens digiti minimi, ulnar nerve
What are the small muscles of the hand that both insert and originate on a muscle tendon?
What is the classification of the intercarpal joints?
What is an injury that refers to a rupture or laxity of the collateral ligament at the first metacarpophalangeal joint?
The interphalangeal joints are classified as what type of joint?