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Sections of 1.1-1.4, In Joachim's Biology Class

What is the goal of science?

To investigate and understand the natural world
To explain events in the natural world
To use those explanations to make useful predictions

What is science?

An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world

What is an observation?

The process of gathering info about events or processes in a careful, orderly way

What is data?

The info gathered from observations

What is an inference?

A logical interpretation based on prior knowledge or experience

What is a hypothesis?

A proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations

What is spontaneous generation?

The idea that life could arise from nonliving matter

What is the structure of a controlled experiment?

Whenever possible, a hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time. All other variables should be kept unchanged, or controlled

What is the manipulated variable?

The variable that is deliberately changed

What is the responding variable?

The variable that is observed and changes in response to the manipulative variable

In Redi's experiment, what was the controlled variable?

Jars
Type of meat
Location
Temperature
Time

In Redi's experiment, what was the manipulative variable?

Gauze

In Redi's experiment, what was the responding variable?

Whether maggots appeared

What was Needham's test of Redi's findings?

He claimed that spontaneous generation was possible under the right conditions.
1. Sealed a bottle of gravy
2. Heated it
3. Said that the heat killed any life in the gravy
4. After several days, the bottle was swarming with activity

What was Spallanzani's test of Redi's findings?

He thought that Needham had not heated his samples enough
1. Boiled to containers of gravy
2. He immediately sealed one jar, and left the other open
3. After several days, the open jar was teeming with microorganisms
4. The sealed jar was free of microorganisms

What was Pasteur's test of spontaneous generation?

He designed a flask with a long, curved neck
1. The flask was open, but microorganisms ould not get in
2. He boiled the flask to kill and possible microorganisms
3. He waited a year
4. In that time, there were no microorganisms

What was the impact of Pasteur's work?

1. He saved the wine industry
2. He saved the silk industry
3. He created penicillin

No theory is considered _______.

Truth

What is a theory?

A well-supported hypothesis

What does theory apply to in science?

A well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations

What is an anti-body?

A bodily protector that keeps out internal diseases

What are the 8 characteristics of living things?

1. They are made of cells
2. They reproduce
3. They are based on DNA
4. They grow and develop
5. The obtain and use materials an energy
6. The respond to their environment
7. The maintain a stable internal environment
8. As a group, they change over time (EVOLUTION)

What is homeostasis?

It is used to preserve internal environments

How many parents are there in sexual reproduction?

2

How many parents are there in asexual reproduction?

1

What is the mitocondria?

The power house of cells

What is the biosphere?

Where all forms of life on Earth are connected, "Living Planet"

At the molecular level, all living things are ______________ _________.

Fundamentally alike

Science seeks to provide ________ ___________.

Useful information

What are the levels of organization in order?

1. Molecules (Atom groups)
2. Cells (Smallest unit of life)
3. Groups of Cells (Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems)
4. Organism (Individual living thing)
5. Population (Group of organisms in the same area)
6. Community (Populations that live together in 1 area)
7. Ecosystem (Community and nonliving surroundings)
8. Biosphere (Earth's part that contains all ecosystems)

What are some different branches of biology?

1. Zoology=Animals
2. Botany=Plants
3. Paleontology=Ancient Life

What is the metric system?

A system of units of measurements based on multiples of 10

What are light microscopes?

Produce magnified images by focusing visible light rays

What are electron microscopes?

Produce magnified images by focusing beams of electrons

How can cell cultures be used?

They can test cell responses under controlled conditions, to study interactions between cells, and to select specific cells for further study

What is cell fractionation?

It is the separation of different cell parts
1. Cells are broken into pieces by a special blender
2. They are added to a liquid in a special tube
3. The tube is out in a centrifuge
4. Spinning separates the cells

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