BIOL252 03: Chpt 6 Classification of Tissues

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Human A & P, Lab SC Prof. S. Herrick Human Anatomy & Physiology Laboratory Manual, 11th ed. Cat, ISBN: 9780321822192

Groups of cells that are anatomically similar and share a function are
a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
d. tissues

a. organ systems
b. organisms
c. organs
*d. tissues

How many primary tissue types are found in the human body?

4
epithelial
connective
muscular
neural

T or F: Endocrine and exocrine glands are classified as epithelium because they develop from epithelial membranes.

True

Epithelial tissues can be classified according to cell shape. ___________ epithelial cells are scale like and flattened
a. columnar
b. cuboidal
c. squamous
d. transitional

a. columnar
b. cuboidal
*c. squamous
d. transitional

All connective tissue is derived from an embryonic tissue known as
a. cartilage
b. ground substance
c. mesenchyme
d. reticular

a. cartilage
b. ground substance
*c. mesenchyme
d. reticular

Which is not an example of connective tissue?
a. bones
b. ligaments
c. neurons
d. tendons

a. bones
b. ligaments
*c. neurons
d. tendons

T or F: Blood is a type of connective tissue

True

Of the two major cell types found in nervous tissue [neurons | neuroglial cells] are highly specialized to generate and conduct electrical signals.

neurons

How many basic types of muscle tissue exist?

3
cardiac, smooth, skeletal

This type of muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs. It has no striations and its cells are spindle shaped.
a. cardiac
b. skeletal
c. smooth

a. cardiac
b. skeletal
*c. smooth

Tissue

groups of cells similar in structure & function

organs

multiple tissues together performing a biological function

histology

study of tissues

epithelial tissue

sheet of cells covering a body surface, whether internal or external

epithelial tissue distinguishing characteristics

polarity
specialized contacts
supported by connective tissue
avascular but innervated
regeneratability

epithelial polarity

apical surface
the side that is free

basal surface
the side that is bound

epithelial classifications

by strata
simple or stratified
single layer or >1 layer

by shape
columnar
-nonciliated: digestive tract stomach->anus, gallbladder, excretory ducts of some glands
-ciliated: bronchi, uterine tubes, parts of uterus
--stratified: male urethra, large ducts of some glands

cuboidal
-kidney tubules, ducts & secretory portions of small glands, ovarian surface
--stratified: largest ducts of sweat, mammary & salivary glands

squamous (scale-like)
-simple: kidney glomeruli, lung's air sacs, linings of heart, blood & lymph vessels, lining of ventral body cavity
-stratified:
--nonkeratinized: moist linings of esophagus, mouth, vagina
--keratinized: epidermis

pseudostratified
appears stratified, but isn't
-nonciliated: sperm-carrying ducts, ducts of large glands
-cilitated: trachea, upper respiratory tract

transitional
stratified squamous epithelial tissue that enables the cells to stretch over one another so that an organ can expand & contract
-ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra

basement membrane

amorphous material secreted partly by epithelial cells & connective tissue cells that lie next to each other

support & adhere epithelial cells

endocrine glands

ductless glands
secrete hormones into blood or lymphatic vessels that weave through the gland

exocrine glands

empty secretions through their ducts
to body surface or into body cavities
sweat, oil, sebum, liver, pancreas

connective tissue

protect, support, bind other tissues of the body

types of connective tissue

osseous

hematopoietic

cartilage

connective tissue proper
-areolar, adipose, reticular, dense

connective tissue characteristics

rich supply of blood vessels
(except cartilage, tendons, ligaments)

comprised of many cell types

large proportion of matrix to cells

connective tissue extracellular matrix

produced by cells then extruded
responsible for its strength
some types have more matrix than cells

comprised of ground substance & fibers

CT ECM ground substance

interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, proteoglycans

ranges from liquid, semisolid, gel-like, very hard

functions as medium through which nutrients diffuse between capillaries & cell

CT ECM fibers

reside in lacunae

collagen (white) - most abundant
elastic (yellow)
reticular (fine collagen)

hinder diffusion by making ground substance less pliable

mesenchyme

embryonic tissue from which all connective tissue is derived

loose connective tissue, areolar

matrix: gel-like
fibers: all types
cells: fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some WBC

wraps & cushions organs, phagocytize bacteria, holds & conveys tissue fluid

found
under epithelia of body, packaging organs, surrounding capillaries

loose connective tissue, adipose

matrix as in areolar but sparse
cells: fat droplet displaces nucleus

reserve fuel, insulation, support & protect organs

found
under skin, around kidneys & eyeballs, visceral, breasts

loose connective tissue, reticular

matrix: reticular fibers in typical loose ground substance
cells: reticular, lie on network

stroma: soft internal skeleton to support other cell types incl. WBC, mast cells, macrophages

found
lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen

dense connective tissue, dense regular

matrix: primarily collagen fibers, few elastic
cell type: mostly fibroblast

attach muscles and bones, withstand tensile stress in 1 direction

found
tendons, most ligaments, aponeuroses

dense connective tissue, elastic

matrix: like dense regular, with high proportion of elastic

recoil of tissue after stretch, pulsatile flow of blood in arteries, passive recoil of lungs

found
large arterial walls, some vertebral ligaments, bronchial tube walls

dense connective tissue, dense irregular

matrix: irregular collagen fibers, some elastic
cell: fibroblast

withstand tension in many directions, structural strength

found
fibrous capsule of organs & joints, dermis, digestive submucosa

cartilage

matrix: amorphous, firm collagen fiber network

chondroblasts

secrete cartilage matrix

chondrocytes

mature cartilage cells residing in lacunae

cartilage types

hyaline
support & reinforce, cushion, resist compression
embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx

elastic
greatest flexibility while maintaining shape
external ear, epiglottis

fibrocartilage
thick collagen fibers predominate
tensile streength, absorb compressive shock
interertebral discs, public symphesis, discs of knee

osseous tissue

matrix: hard, calcified
fibers: collagen
cells: osteocytes in lacunae, osteoblasts lay down matrix

support, protect, levers for movement, storage of Ca, minerals, fat, hematopoiesis in marrow

found in bones

blood

matrix: plasma, a fluid
cells: R & W BC's of various types

transport of respiratory gases, wastes, nutrients, other

found
blood vessels

nervous tissue comprised of

neurons
highly specialized cells that are excitable & conductive

neuroglia
support for neurons
protect, support, insulate

neuron structure characteristic

cytoplasm drawn into long cell processes

muscle tissue

highly specialized to contract
produces body movement

skeletal muscle

voluntary control
acts on bones for movement, posture
cells are multinucleate
striated

cardiac muscle

only in heart
striated
branching uninucleate cells interdigitating and intercalated discs
involuntary

smooth muscle

found in layers in walls of hollow organs
usually 2 layers at right angles

contraction can
constrict or dilate organ lumen
propel substances

no striations
spindle-shaped
involuntary control

Apical surface has dome-shaped cells (flattened cells may also be mixed in)

Multiple cell layers present

transitional epithelium

found in
linings of ureters, urinary bladder, part of urethra

Cells are mostly columnar
Not all cells reach the apical surface
Nuclei are located at different levels
Cilia are located at the apical surface

psuedostratified columnar epithelium

found in
lining of trachea & upper respiratory tract

Apical surface has flattened cells with very little cytoplasm

Cells not layered

simple squamous epithelium

found in kidney glomeruli; air sacs of lungs; lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, serosae of ventral body cavity

Apical surface has square cells with a round nucleus

Cells are not layered

simple cuboidal epithelium

found in kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands; ovary surface

large round cells are densely packed
nucleus pushed to one side

adipose tissue

found in
fat

Lacunae present
Lacunae not arranged in a concentric circle
No visible fibers in matrix

Hyaline cartilage

found in
ends of long bones, costal cartilage, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx, embryonic skeleton

Fibers and cells are loosely packed with visible space between fibers

Fibers overlap but do not form a network

areolar connective tissue

found in
lamina propria of mucous membranes, packages organs, surrounds capillaries

Extracellular fibers run parallel to each other
Nuclei of fibroblasts visible

Dense regular connective tissue

found in
tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses

Lacunae sparsely distributed
Lacunae not arranged in concentric circle
Fibers visible and fairly organized

Fibrocartilage

found in
intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joint

Tapered cells with darkly stained nucleus centrally located
No striations
Cells layered to form a sheet

Smooth Muscle

found in
walls of blood vessels and other hollow organs

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