The sum of inerpersonal relationships that provide support or encouragement. Sources include families, communities, public institiutions, and ethnic groups
The idea that a society should reflect the diverse mix of racial and other groups of which it is composse
Knowledge of "what". Such as facts, definitions, and concepts
Knowledge of "how".
equal opportunity for students to learn
teacher-initiated, whole-class instruction
an instruction technique in which students decide the content, means, and pace of the learning process
A state of being in which students quit trying because they have repeatedly had their efforts neglected
Sensorimotor:birth-2; Preoperational: 2-8; Concrete Operational: 8-11; Formal Operations: 11-15+
Zone of proximal development
Zone of Proximal Development
the difference between the intellectual level a child can reach on his or her own and the level they can potentially reach with help
Engages the learner in the instruction taking place. Not passive
Stresses that some universal, everlasting truths should be taught in school.
Focus on active learning and addressing the students' intrests
Individual choice creates meaning and it is the individual's standards that matter rather than external standards
Teaches a set of essential knowledge and skills, but accepts that this core curriculum may change.
self fulfilling prophecy
an originally erroneous expectation that causes the expectation to become true
sustaining expectations effect
teachers expect students to sustain previously developed behavior patterns. they take these behavior patterns for granted and fail to see and capitalize on changes in student potential
Differences between people- may be ethnic, gender, physical, etc.
2 people from the movie and what did they do?
Thomas Jefferson- wanted to educate the common man, wanted 3 years of free public school for everyone, proposed a bill 3 times; Horace Mann- inspecting schools, secretary of education, common schools and curriculum
accepted behavioral rules
ability to influence behavior
teacher's attention to and insight about the classroom
The teacher is in charge and they add a rational dimension to the rule making capacity of the group
Elements of Effective Classroom Management
plan and prepare, establish usable rules, get off to a good start, monitor the classroom environment, and keep records efficiently
Maslow's Hierarchy, moral reasoning, reality therapy
based on effective teacher-student relationships- students want to behave
Desist strategies, behavior modification, assertive discipline
prescribed by the teacher and based on the teacher's recognized authority
students behavior is based on what they need
ethics, beliefs, and character development
students want to be responsible for finding solutions to their problems- teachers help them make a plan
three levels of force and two types of communication- let students know expectations at beginning
process of changing behavior by rewarding desired actions and ignoring undesired ones- phases of charting and intervention
teachers run an organized teacher in charge class- discipline plan with rules, positive recognition, and consequences
transitions are the hardest to deal with
2 differences between behavioral and constructivist
behavioral uses direct-instruction- large-group, teacher initiated; constructivist - student initiated, minimal teacher supervision
Piaget and Vgotsky- humans develop intellectually in various overlapping stages
Skinner and Tyler- learning can be defined as an observable cange in behavior.
Develops students' thinking skills and allows students to structure the learning and teaching themselves.
4 Instructional Models
Organizational models, Learning psychology models, Classroom management models, Inquiry and higher-level thinking models
Transfer of learning
the application of something learned in some situation to a novel setting
implies thoughtful planning to do something; individual preferences
Implies some orderly way of doing something; steps or processes; set in stone guidelines created by others
a series of steps that one takes to employ any general model begion used in the classroom
Teaching as an Art
knowledge of when and in what way to apply technical skills
Teaching as a Science
knowledge of the skills, methods, procedures, and content