Eukaryote and Prokaryote Cell Structure

25 terms by pengwynne 

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granules

food storage in prokaryotes

gas vesicles

provide regulation for buoyancy in prokaryotes

flagella

long protein structure responsible for motility

pili

allow attachment of cells to surfaces. sex pili are involved in DNA transfer

prions

protein only, no nucleic acid. responsible for at least 7 neurodegenerative diseases

viroids

consist of a single RNA without a protective coat. it's an agent, and much smaller than a virus

virus

agent, piece of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. "obligate intracellular parasites" (must hijack a living cell) need electromicroscope to see

capsule

prokaryotes: adherence and protection. it's a distinct coat of sugars/protein

slime layer

prokaryotes: irregular- enambles bacteria to adhere to specific surfaces. similar to the capsule

plasmid

prokaryotes: carries non essential genetics

cytoskeleton

interior protein framework involved in cell division and controlling cell shape

ribosome

protein synthesis

endospore

a type of cell resistant to heat and other damaging conditions

chloroplast

eukaryotes: site of photosynthesis

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

eukaryotes: lipid synthesis/degradation.. storage

rough endoplasmic reticulum

eukaryotes: processes and transports proteins made at attached ribosomes.

golgi apparatus

eukaryotes: site where protein from endoplasmic reticulum are modified before they are transported in vesicles

lysosome

eukaryotes: (vesicles) digest macromolecules

mitochondria

eukaryotes: make ATP/ energy generators

peroxisome

eukaryotes: oxidation of lipids and toxic chemicals

chromosomes in prokaryotes

located in nucleoid which is not membrane-bound

cell boundary

phospholipid bilayer embedded with proteins. its a cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes and a plasma membrane in eukaryotes. involved in transport and structure

biofilm

A surface-coating colony of prokaryotes that engage in metabolic cooperation. (some capsules and slime layers enable bacteria to grow an cling to surfaces)

cell wall

nonexistent in prokaryotes and animal cells. cell walls provide rigidity in plant cells

vacuole

water storage in plant cells

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