DCs, macrophages (as APCs)
Which cells are especially important and serve as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems
what type of cell is important in promoting inflammation? It also signals to dendritic cells, phagocytizes pathogens, and releases cytokines/chemokines
The special type of macrophage which is located in the liver
The special type of macrophage which is located in the lung
The special type of macrophage which is located in the brain
what type of cell is important in responding to chemotaxis? Also responsible for the formation of pus.
acidification, competitors, enzymes, toxic n2 oxides, antimicrobial peptides, toxic o2 products
what are various ways that phagocytes kill pathogens?
a process used by neutrophils and macrophages that produces toxic products that help kill engulfed micro-organisms
polysaccharide capsule, mycobacteria
what are two ways that pathogens can evade phagocytosis?
Macrophages produce ______ which causes capillaries to dilate and become leaky; also triggers pain
complement, mast cell degranulation
Other than macrophages, what are two other triggers for inflammation?
lipoteichoic acid is a main component of the cell membrane of gram _____ bacteria
lipopolysaccharide is a main component of the cell membrane of gram _____ bacteria
manose binding lectin
What pattern recognition receptor detects particular patterns of carbohydrates, opsonizes pathogen, and is capable of triggering the lectin pathway of complement
What type of receptor is found on cells on the innate immune system and helps to identify self vs. non-self cells by recognizing a particular PAMP
intracellular or extracellular
Where are various TLRs located on phagocytes?
What cell wall component of gram negative bacteria induces shock. Activation of TLR-4 and TLR-5 leads to the activation of NFkB
.NFkB is a transcription factor involved in
A type of protein that recognizes fragments of bacterial cell walls. Leads to the activation of NFkB
where are NOD proteins located?
NOD1 protein is a gram ____ sensor
negative and positive
NOD2 protein is a gram _____ sensor
macrophages and dendritic cells secrete _______ which are produced after TLRs, NODs, ect bind. They are also released by T cells after activation
The type of cytokine(s) that activates vascular endothelium and lymphocytes. It destroys local tissue and increases access of effector cells. Systemically, it causes fever.
The type of cytokine(s) that activates vascular endothelium and increases vascular permeability,which leads to increased entry of IgG complement, and cells to tissues and increased fluid drainage to lymph nodes. Systemically, it causes fever and shock.
The type of cytokine(s) that causes lymphocyte activation and increased antibody production. Systemically, it causes fever and induces acute-phase protein production
The type of cytokine(s) that involves a chemotactic factor that recruits neutrophils, basophils, and T cells to site of infection
The type of cytokine(s) that activates NK cells and induces the differentiation of CD4 T cells into TH1 cells
selectins, immunoglobulin, integrins
What are the three main types of adhesion molecules?
LPS triggers expression of what type of proteins located on APCs?
B7, CD4, MHC II
What three proteins must be present for a T cell to become activated by an APC?
A component of blood plasma in which a group of proteins are activated by pathogens. These proteins opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory responses to help fight infection
chemotaxis, opsonization, kill pathogens
What are the three main functions of the complement system?
What is the starting molecule of the classical pathway?
What is the starting molecule of the lectin pathway?
What is the starting molecule of the alternate pathway?
C3a, C4a, C5a
Which function proteins of the complement system are peptide mediators of inflammation?
Which function proteins of the complement system are membrane-binding proteins and opsonins?
Which function proteins of the complement system are membrane-attack proteins?
In the alternative pathway, C3 is cleaved __________
complement regulatory proteins
What prevents the alternative pathway from attacking self cells?
What is the C3 convertase of the alternative pathway?
What is the C3 convertase of the classical pathway?
What is the C3 convertase of the lectin pathway?
What is the C5 convertase of the classical pathway?
What is the C5 convertase of the lectin pathway?
What is the C5 convertase of the alternative pathway
The term for the small molecules that send information from one cell to another. Many / most are given the name "interleukin" (IL) and a number (IL-1).
The term for a particular type of cytokine that is chemoattractant. It draws in neutrophils and macrophages
The type of adhesion molecule that binds carbohydrates and initiates leukocyte-endothelial interaction
The type of adhesion molecule that binds to cell-adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix. Has a strong adhesion
The type of adhesion molecule that has various roles in cell adhesion. Serves as a ligand for integrins
What two proteins are synthesized during an acute phase response?
Infection of cells with viruses induces the production of proteins that are known as _______. Responsible for disrupting virus replication.
Recognition of ______ can trigger production of interferons
destroys viral DNA, activates NK cells, induce MHC I expression
What are the three functions of interferons?
Most virus infected cells may produce IFN, but specialized ________ secrete huge amounts of interferon
What type of cells are activated by interferons and macrophage-derived cytokines to serve as an early defense against certain intracellular infections
which type of cells take the longest to activate?
movement, enzymes, energy conversion
What are the general functions of proteins?
proteins are polymers of ________
How many different amino acids are there?
the level of protein structure that consists of a sequence of amino acids
the level of protein structure that consists of alpha helix, beta sheet, and random coils
the level of protein structure that consists of a chain of connected alpha helices and beta sheets
the level of protein structure that consists of multiple chains of connected alpha helices and beta sheets
the term describing the surface of a protein that is coated with sugars. This affects recognition and protects from proteases
What determines an enzyme's function?