the study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
One of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. The three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers.
one of several compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
one of several organic compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms.
one of the 2 molecules that are mirror images of each other
specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
Functional group consisting of a H atom joined to an O atom by a polar covalent bond; molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
molecules possessing the hydroxyl group is bound to a carbon and is soluble in water.
Functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a C atom double bonded to an O atom.
Name of compound in the carbonyl group when at the end of the carbon skeleton.
a compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be variety of atoms and groups of atoms.It featuresa carbonyl group ( C=O) bonded to two other carbon atoms.
f.group present in organic acids and consist of a single C atom double-bonded to an O atom & also bonded to a hydroxyl group
organic acids characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group ( R-COOH). Proton donors.
functional group that consists of a Nitrogen atom bonded to 2 Hydrogen atom; can act as a base in a solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+
organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
functional group consisting of a sulfur-hydrogen bond ( S-H), Thiols are the sulfur analogue of an alcohol.
This is an organic sulfur compound that contains a sulfur-hydrogen bond ( S-H). Thiols are the sulfur analogue of
Functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. ( --SH).
long molecule consisting of many similar of identical monomers linked together.
the subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule( usually h2o); also called dehydration reaction
Chemical reaction in which 2 molecules bond with the removal of a h20 molecule.
chemical process that loses or splits molecules by the addition of water.
a sugar( monosaccharide), or one of its dimmers ( disaccharide's), or polymers ( polysaccharides).
Monosaccharide ( simple sugar)
simplest carb, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharide; molecular formulas are generally some multiple of CH20
a polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
a storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose
extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch
form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by B-1, 4-glycosidic linkages
: structural polysaccharide of an amino sugar found in many fungi/ the exoskeletons of all arthropods
: 1 of a family of compounds including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that are insoluble in H20
biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
long carbon chain carboxylic acid; vary in length & in the # and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat
: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
Saturated Fatty Acid:
fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton
Unsaturated Fatty Acid:
fatty acid possessing 1+ bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail; such bonding reduces the # of Hydrogen atoms attached to the Carbon skeleton
type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 rings with various functional groups attached
steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes & acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
A protein may undergo reversible structural changes in performing its biological function. The alternative structures of the same protein are referred to as conformation.
: polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
organic molecule possessing both carboxyl & amino groups/serve as monomers of proteins
covalent bond between 2 amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to the hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure
is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins, only somewhat less common than alpha helix.
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, and disulfide bridges
a type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that don't mix with water come together to exclude the water
strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three-dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
in proteins, a process in which a protein unravels & loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive; In DNA, the separation of the 2 strands of the double helix; occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, & temperature
discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA in some viruses)
a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. Two types are DNA & RNA
building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine ( C ), thymine (T) & uracil (U)
: 1 of 2 types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G)
: the sugar component of RNA
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. Two types are DNA & RNA
covalent bond between formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration rxn