kv_AnatomyCh1Test

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Physiology

The branch of biological science that studies how body parts work or function.

Anatomy

The study of the shape and structure of body parts

Homeostasis

The tendency of the body's systems to maintain a relatively constant or balanced internal environment

Metabolism

The term that indicates all chemical reactions occurring in the body

Urinary System

Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes

Endocrine System

Is affected by the removal of the thyroid gland

Skeletal System

Provides support and levers on which the muscular system can act

Cardiovascular System

Includes the heart

Integumentary System

Protects underlying organs from drying out and mechanical damage

Lymphatic/Immune System

Protects the body; destroys bacteria and tumor cells

Digestive System

Breaks down foodstuffs into small particles that can be absorbed

Respiratory System

Removes carbon dioxide from the blood

Cardiovascular System

Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues

Muscular System

Moves the limbs; allows facial expression

Urinary System

Conserves body water or eliminates excesses

Reproduction System

Provides for conception and childbearing

Endocrine System

Controls the body w/ chemicals called hormones

Integumentary System

Is damaged when you cut your finger or get a severe sunburn

Cardiovascular System

Blood vessels, heart

Endocrine System

Pancreas, pituitary, adrenal glands

Urinary system

Kidneys, bladder, ureters

Reproductive System

Testis, vas deferens, urethra

Digestive System

Esophagus, large intestine, rectum

Skeletal System

Breastbone, vertebral column, skull

Nervous System

Brain, Nerves, sensory receptors

Maintenance Of Boundaries

Keep's the body's internal environment distinct from the external environment

Reproduction

Provides new cells for growth and repair

Growth

Occurs when constructive activities occur at a faster rate than destructive activities

Digestion

The tuna sandwich you have jst eaten is broken down to it's chemical building blocks

Excretion

Elimination of carbon dioxide by the lungs and elimination of nitrogenous wastes by the kidneys

Responsiveness

Ability to react to stimuli; a major role of the nervous system

Movement

Walking, throwing a ball, riding a bicycle

Metabolism

All chemical reactions occurring in the body

Maintenance of Boundaries

At the cellular level, membranes; for the whole organism, the skin

Axillary

Armpit

Femoral

Thigh region

Gluteal

Buttock area

Cervical

Neck region

Umbilical

Belly button area

Pubic

Genital area

Antecubitcal

Anterior aspect of elbow

Occipital

Posterior aspect of head

Inguinal

Area where trunk meets thigh

Lumbar

Back area from ribs to hips

Buccal

Pertaining to the cheek

Pelvic & Ventral

Removal of the uterus, or womb

Thoracic & Ventral

Coronary bypass surgery (Heart surgery)

Dorsal & Cranial

Removal of a serious brain tumor

Ventral & Pelvic

Removal of a "hot" appendix

Abdominal & Ventral

A stomach ulcer operation

Dorals

Back

Ventral

Anterior/front

Thoracic

Chest

Cranial

Skull

In the anatomical position, the face and palms are on the ______ body surface

Anterior

The buttocks and shoulder blades are on the _____ body surface.

Posterior

The top of the head is the most ______ part of the body.

Superior

The ears are ____ to the shoulders and ______ to the nose.

Superior , Lateral

The heart is ____ to the spine and ____ to the lungs.

Anterior, Anterior

The elbow is _____ to the fingers but ______ to the shoulder.

Proximal , Distal

In humans, the dorsal surface can also be called the ________ surface.

Posterior

In 4 legged animals, the dorsal surface is the _______ surface.

Posterior

If an incision cuts the heart into right and left parts, the section is a _____ section.

Sagittal

If the heart is cut so that the anterior and posterior parts result, the section is a _____ section.

Frontal

You are told to cut an animal along the two planes so that the paired kidneys are observable in both sections. The two sections that meet this requirement are the _______ and ______ sections.

Frontal , Transverse.

Level Of Structural Organization

Atoms ---> Chemicals ---> Molecules ---> Cells ---> Tissue ---> Organs ---> Organ Systems ---> Organism

The wrist is ______ to the hand.

Proximal

The breastbone is ______ to the spine.

Anterior

The brain is _______ to the spinal cord.

Superior

The lungs are _______ to the stomach.

Superior

The ears are _____ to the nose.

Lateral

The heart is _______ to the arm.

Medial

The forehead is ______ to the nose.

Superior

Anterior + Posterior

Front + Back

Superior + Inferior

Higher + Lower

Distal = Proximal

Far + Close
(applies to arms and legs)

Medial + Lateral

Middle + Far From Middle

Frontal Cut

is the plane that separates the anterior & posterior sides.

Transverse

is the plane that separates the superior and inferior sections of the body.

Sagittal/Mid - Sagittal

is the plane that separates the left side from the right side.

Superficial

Not deep. Surface area.

The knee is ______ to the hip.

Inferior

The forehead is _________ to the nose.

Superior

Femoral

The thigh

Fibular

The side of the leg

Inguinal

The groin

Mammary

The breast

Manus

The hand

Nasal

The nose

Oral

The mouth

Orbital

The bony eye socket

Patellar

The anterior knee (kneecap) region

Pelvic

The pelvis region

Pubic

The genital region

Sternal

The region of the breastbone

Tarsal

The ankle

Thoracic

The chest

Umbilical

The navel (belly button)

Cephalic

The head

Gluteal

The buttocks or rump

Lumbar

The area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin

Occipital

The posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull

Popliteal

The back of the knee

Sacral

The area between the hips

Scapular

The scapula or shoulder blade area

Sural

The calf or posterior surface of the leg

Vertebral

The area of the spinal column

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