more than 1000 daltons.
formed of 20 amino acid monomers.
formed of neucleotides.
formed of monosaccharides.
same chemical formula but atoms rearranged.
different structure; different physical, chemical, reactive properties.
anything causing a birth defect
One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.
forms polymer. Also called dehydration reaction. Produces water.
breaks down polymer. Requires water.
functional group: hydroxyl
polar. hydrogen bonds with water to help dissolve molecules. helps link to other molecules by dehydration.
functional group: aldehyde
C=O group is very reactive. Important in building molecules and in energy-releasing reactions.
functional group: keto
C=O group is important in carbohydrates and in energy reactions.
functional group: carboxyl
Acidic. ionizes in living tissues. enters into dehydration synthesis. some carboxylic acids important in energy-releasing reactions.
functional group: amino
Basic. accepts H+ in living tissues. Enters into dehydration synthesis by giving up H+
functional group: phosphate
Negatively charged. Enters into dehydration synthesis. When bonded to another phosphate, hydrolysis releases much energy.
functional group: sulfhydryl
By giving up H, two -SH groups can react to form a disulfide bridge, thus stabilizing protein structure.
catalytic proteins that speed up biochemical reactions
(antibodies) recognize and respond to non-self substances that invade the organism from the environment
hormonal and regulatory proteins
(insulin) control physiological processes.
receive and respond to molecular signals from inside and outside the organism.
store chemical building blocks - amino acids - for later use.
(collagen) provide physical stability and movement
(hemoglobin) carry substances within the organism
genetic regulatory proteins
regulate when, how, and to what extent a gene is expressed
sugar containing 6 carbon atoms
heat shock proteins
proteins expressed in shells that have extreme temperatures
bond between carbohydrate molecules through an intervening carbon atom
three-carbon alcohol with three hydroxyl groups: component of phospholipids and triglycerides.
amino acids are simultaneously...
acids and bases; because the carboxyl group has LOST a H+ ion, and the amino group has GAINED one.
condensation reaction with carboxyl group of one acid plus amino group of another
the ALPHA helix
right handed coil, turns same direction as a screw, R groups extend outward...coiling results from h-bonds forming between the H of the N--H of one amino acid and the oxygen of the C=O of anotehr.
the BETA pleated sheet
formed when two or more polypeptide chains h-bond together in an aligned and extended way.
polymers of amino acids.
determined by the sequence of amino acids.
unbranched (linear) polymer of covalently linked amino acids.
formed of an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R-group....all attached to the same carbon atom, called the alpha carbon.
amino group of the first amino acid in a polypeptide chain
carboxyl group of the last amino acid in a polypeptide chain
Arg; R; positively charged hydrophilic side chain
His; H; positively charged hydrophilic side chain
Lys; L; positively charged hydrophilic side chain
Asp; D; negatively charged hydrophilic side chain
Glu; E; negatively charged hydrophilic side chain
Ser; S; polar but uncharged side chain; hydrophillic
Thr; T; polar but uncharged side chain; hydrophilic
Asn; N; polar but uncharged side chain; hydrophilic
Gln; Q; polar but uncharged side chain; hydrophilic
Tyr; Y; polar but uncharged side chain; hydrophilic
Cys; C; Special Case
Gly; G; Special Case
Pro: P; Special Case
Ala; A; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Ile; I; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Leu; L; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Met; M; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Phe; F; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Trp; W; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
Val; V; nonpolar hydrophobic side chain
a strong covalent bond formed when the terminal -SH groups of two cysteine amino acids react.
3 polar positive amino acids
arginine, histidine, lysine
2 polar negative amino acids
Glutamic Acid, Aspartic acid
5 polar noncharged amino acids
Threonine, Asparagine, Glutamine, Tyrosine, and Serine
3 special cases - nonpolar no charge - amino acids
cysteine, proline, Glycine
7 nonpolar noncharged amino acids
valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, alanine, methionine.
protein heated so the heat energy causes secondary and tertiary structure to break down
molecular caretakers. Cares for proteins post-denaturation and just after it's made. Eukaryotic.
triglycerides (made of)
simple lipids. Made of fatty acids and glycerol. (3 fatty acid, 1 glycerol)
fatty acid (made of)
long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain plus a polar carboxyl group
carboxyl group of a fatty acid covalently bonds with a hydroxyl group of glycerol - condensation reaction
saturated fatty acid
all bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds
unsaturated fatty acid
hydrocarbon chain contains one or more double bonds between carbons
has two opposing chemical properties; like a molecule with a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic end; like fatty acids
phospholipids (made of)
fatty acids + glycerol + ester linkages + phosphate compound