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Metabolism, Growth and Control

Organisms which make their own food using energy from sunlit are called...

Photoautotrophs

Organisms which use energy from inorganic substances to make organic compounds are...

Chemoautotrophs

Organisms which need organic chemicals as a source of both energy and carbon are...

Chemoheterotrophs

The element necessary for all organic compounds is...

Carbon

The synthesis of both amino acids and nucleotides involves a source of the element...

Nitrogen

The element necessary to maintain the shape of complex proteins is...

Sulfur

The element phosphorus is an essential component of...

Nucleotides and Phospholipids

Organisms which require oxygen are called...

Obligate Aerobes

The term Facultative Anaerobe refers to an organism that...

Uses oxygen or grows without oxygen

Organisms which cannot survive the presence of oxygen are...

Obligate Anaerobes

Organisms which are indifferent to the presence of oxygen are...

Aerotolerant

Which is the most toxic form of oxygen?

Hydroxide Free Radical

Which is a normal by-product of Aerobic Metabolism (type of oxygen)?

Superoxide Free Radical

Which of the following is the least reactive form of oxygen?

Diatomic Oxygen (Regular O2)

Which of the following is the most probable room temperature?

20 degrees C

"Heat Loving" bacteria are called...

Thermophils

"Cold Loving" bacteria are called...

Psychrophils

Bacteria which thrive at human body temperatures are called...

Mesophils

The optimum temperature of most pathogenic organisms is...

37 degrees C

A bacteria capable of withstanding abnormally high osmotic pressure is...

Halobacteria Halobium

What is the optimum pH for fungi?

5-6

What is the pH range for most bacteria?

6.5-7.5

Substances used to stabilize pH are called...

Buffers

Organisms which are able to withstand high pressure are...

Barophilic

A polysaccharide thickener derived from marine alga is...

Agar

A reducing medium is needed for the growth of --- organisms.

Anaerobic

A medium containing beef extract would be considered a --- medium.

Complex

Blood agar is an example of a --- medium.

Differential

A medium containing an inhibitor (to keep out unwanted growth) would be considered a --- medium.

Selective

The armadillo is used in the study of the organism...

Mycobacterium Leprae

A technique used to preserve bacteria for extended time periods is...

Lyophilization (10+ years)

The most common method of bacterial reproduction is...

Transverse Fission

Most bacterial division occurs as (describe action)...

...the membrane furrows and the cell wall grows inward.

The period of most rapid bacterial growth is...

Log

The time during which organisms are acclimating to their environment is called the...

Lag

The most direct measurement of bacteria is...

Petroff-Hauser Counter

Which method involves the most time lapse, but is the most common way to measure bacterial numbers?

Standard Plate Count

An indirect method of measuring bacterial growth which can be used after short growth periods is the...

Spectrophotometer Transmittance

Packed cell density involves the use of a...

Centrifuge

A chemical reaction releasing energy is called...

Catabolic

A chemical reaction requiring energy is called...

Anabolic

Vitamins or their derivatives may act as --- in metabolism.

Coenzymes

The type of inhibition which denatures the enzyme is...

Noncompetitive

The type of inhibition in which the active site is blocked is called...

Competitive

Phosphorylation is involved in the formation of...

ATP

NAD, NADP and FAD are important to the metabolic pathways because they are...

Hydrogen Transport Molecules

The vitamin(s) essential for energy transport is/are...

B

The catabolism of glucose first involves a pathway resulting in the production of the compound...

Pyruvate

A widely used pathway involving five-carbon intermediates in the catabolism of carbohydrates is the --- pathway.

Pentose Phosphate

The pathway used by all organisms to catabolize glucose is the --- pathway.

Glycolysis

During the fermentation process, which is not a possible product?

Water

The reaction in which Fructose 1, 6-biphosphate is converted to two molecules of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is an example of...

Decomposition

In the transformation of Isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide is removed. This process is called...

Decarboxylation

Isomerization

Rearranging of a molecule's atoms - converting one isomer into another.

The transfer of electrons and hydrogens to the molecule NAD to form NADH2 in the same step is referred to as...

Oxidation-Reduction

In the Kreb's Cycle, fumarate is converted to malate by the addition of water. This reaction is called...

Hydration

Citrate is converted to Cis-aconitate by the removal of water. This process is called...

Dehydration

During the initial step of the Kreb's cycle, an acetyl group is added to oxaloaccetate (C2 to C4) to form citric acid (C6). This reaction is a...

Synthesis

Glycolysis is...

Anaerobic

The starting material of the glycolysis pathway is...

Glucose

What is not a product of Glycolysis?

Carbon Dioxide

Glycolysis occurs in the...

Cytoplasm

The first step in Glycolysis produces (what molecule)...

Glucose-6-Phosphate

The initial steps in the glycolysis release energy (True or False)?

False

Energy is added to a molecule by the addition of phosphate from...

ATP

The glycolysis process produces a net gain of --- ATP/Glucose.

2

The reaction preceeding the Krebs Cycle is a sequence involving...

Coenzyme A

The Krebs cycle starts with the formation of...

Citric Acid

The formation of acetyl CoA involves what catalyst?

TTP

A by-product of the Krebs cycle is...

Carbon Dioxide

How many ATP molecules/glucose are produced directly from the Krebs cycle?

2

How many NADH2 molecules are produced from the Krebs cycle?

6

How many FADH2 molecules are produced from the Krebs cycle?

2

Which product of the Krebs cycle pass into the electron transport chain?

FADH2 and NADH2

A product of the electron transport chain is...

water

What are the electron carriers based on the heme molecule?

Cytochromes

What are the electron carriers based on the quinone molecule?

Coenzyme Q

During cellular respiration in eukaryotes, electron transport occurs in the...

Mitochondria

Which of the following is usually not anaerobic? Alcohol production, Electron Transport, Glycolysis, Lactic Acid Production, or All.

Electron Transport

Hydrogen ions involved in energy utilization pass into the --- system.

Electron Transport

Anaerobic respiration in yeasts and plants may result in the production of...

Ethanol

What is not a fuel produced by microorganisms?

Cellulose

Fermentation works to preserve foods because of...

Acids and Alcohols

In the synthesis of biomolecules, which of the following is not completely amphibolic? Calvin, Electron Transport, Fermentation, Glycolysis, Krebs.

Krebs

A form of bacterial control which inhibits growth, but doesn't kill it is...

Bacteriostasis

A form of bacterial control which kills all life forms, including endospores and viruses...

Sterilization

The control method most likely to be used in cleansing wounds is...

Antisepsis

One result of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in...

Increased susceptibility to disease

In general, the type of microbe least difficult to control is a/n...

Virus

The classic pasteurization process normally involves a temperature of...

72 degrees C

Which of the following would be the most likely method to be used in sterilizing bandages?

Autoclaving

The standard for comparison of chemical disinfectants is...

Phenol

Alcohols generally destroy microbes by...

Damaging proteins

A/n --- is least likely to be damaged by disinfectants.

Endospores

Which process is used to preserve foods by affecting osmotic pressure?

Desiccation

The symbol µ represents a...

Micrometer

List requirements which must be considered for optimal growth of microbes (8).

Nutrients, moisture, oxygen level, pH, temperature, sterility, osmotic pressure, and barometric pressure.

Describe the bacterial growth curve. During which period would you measure generation time?

LAG: Little or no cell division, intense metabolic activity, gearing up for next action.
LOG: High activity and growth/division. During this time, generations are measured.
STATIONARY: Growth=Death rate, decline due to exhaustion of nutrients.
DEATH: Growth rate is less than the death rate.

Compare aerobic respiration and fermentation.

Both start in the cytoplasm with glycolysis and yeild 2 ATP. Then, in respiration, the process moves on to acetyl-coA formation, the Krebs cycle and electron transport. Final ATP is 36. For fermentation, the process ends at glycolysis, ending with only 2 ATP.

List characteristics of an ideal disinfectant (8).

Kills germs (antimicrobial), works at normal temperatures, liquid (soluble), works rapidly, stable, nontoxic to pets and humans, homogeneous (same stuff throughout), noncorroding.

List physical methods of microbial control (6).

Heat (autoclave, moist, dry), Filtration, Low Temperatures (freezing), Dessication (drying out), Radiation, Osmotic Pressure (salting or sugaring).

List four mechanisms by which microbial control may work.

1. Damage cell wall
2. Alter membrane permiability
3. Alter proteins or nucleic acid
4. Inhibit enzyme action

List groups of chemicals used to control microbes (specific examples).

PHENOLS: damages plasma membrane and denatures protein.
ALCOHOLS: Dissolves lipids, dehydrates, and denatures proteins.
HALOGEN (Iodine): Combines with proteins and oxidizes.
HEAVY METALS (Silver, Copper, Zinc): Denatures -SH bond and high affinity for all proteins.

Lab precautions.

Utilitarian clothing. Hair tied back. Clear and cleaned workspaces. No eating, drinking or smoking. No objects in mouth. Microscopes should not be plugged in at the same time as the burners. Culture spills should be mopped up immediately. Infectious or used materials should be disposed of properly. Do not move through lab with loop or pipette containing microbes. Label all materials with name, date, specimen and medium used.

Aerobic Respiration

Respiration that requires oxygen.

Fermentation

Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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