French Protestant dissenters-10,000 + killed on Bartolemew's Day in 1572
-granted limited toleration under the Edict of Nantes in 1598
-in 1685 King Louis XVI outlawed Protestantism and the Huguenots fled elsewhere.
Samuel de Champlain (1608)
french explorer: leading figure in the establishment of Quebec
"Father of New France" -- allied with the Hurons against the British & the Iroquois
coureurs de bois
("runners of the woods")
a.k.a. voyageurs- French fur-trappers (esp. beaver) : established trade posts throughout N. America.
-harmed Indian folkways (introduce capitalism/the acquisition of 'things')
-brought decimating disease
French Roman Catholics-tried desperately to convert natives, but were met by harsh treatment. Few converts achieved, but the Jesuits were successful explorers and geographers.
King William's War (1689-1697)
war between French trappers & British settlers as well as each side's respective Indian allies.
-fighting for control of North America
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
again pitted French trappers and British settlers against one another
-Indian allies of the French(Hurons) were especially violent, gruesome in their attacks on Schenectady, NY & Deerfield, MA
-Spain eventually allied w/France
-British trounced the French and Spanish forces
as evidenced by the terms of peace signed in the 1713 Treaty of Paris: awarding the British with Acadia(Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, Hudson Bay--this ultimately led to the failure of the St. Lawrence French settlements
War of Jenkin's Ear - 1739
clash between Britain and Spain in the Caribbean & Georgia--became part of the bigger War of Austrian Succession in 1742. (a.k.a. King George's war)
King George's War (1742)
(a.k.a. War of Austrian Succession) because the 1713 Treaty of Paris didn't address territorial arrangements, friction between N. Englanders & British gov. resulted.
Ohio River Valley
the subject of the British and French tug o' war: French wanted Ohio so as to link their Canadian territory with their territory in the lower Mississippi Valley
-British colonists intended to settle there on their continued push westward
in 1749, British colonists were getting flimsy land grants to settle the area & in 1754 this came to a head with an attack led by George Washington who experienced brief success, but was soon defeated by the french.
-As a result of the defeat, Britain deported many French Acadians from Nova Scotia for fear of a retaliatory uprising--this dispersed thousands of people, now known as Cajuns.
Albany Congress (1754)
congress of the colonies--initiated by the British gov. to create greater unity among the colonies & secure Iroquois support for
French & Indian War 1754
-bolstered colonial confidence
-crashed British image invincibility
began with the conflict in the Ohio Valley
9yr war in N. America: French vs. British = French expulsion from N. America, as well as sparking beginning of 7-year war in Europe.
seven-year's war fought in : America, EU, West Indies, Philippines,. Africa, & the seven seas. --EU: Britain & Prussia vs. France, Spain, and Russia.
-French energies were concentrated in Europe so Americans didn't have as difficult of a task.
set stage for American revolution--attitudes btwn British & colonies sour (i.e. Quartering Act & British military snob attitude) & the tactics of Indian-style guerrilla warfare were adopted my American militia during the American Revolution. High taxes were collected by crown to repay war debts.
The Battle of Quebec (1759)
one of the most significant engagements in American & British history:
The French defeat determined their defeat in the war and the history on N. America--
the St. Lawrence River was of huge geographical importance--the British pinching off this access point choked off French access to trade and development. Ended w/Treaty of Paris of 1763 and the French basically walked out of N. America.
General Edward Braddock (1755)
(looked down his nose at the militia men)
officer sent to VA w/British regulars (prof. trained soldiers)
-attempted to take Fort Duquesne in 1755--a large part of his forces being ill-trained militia men--they were beaten soundly
William Pitt (1757)
high-qual leader brought in ny British to straighten things up
-loved by commoners = "Great Commoner"
-in 1757, became a top leader in London govmnt--earned title 'organizer of victory'
Assigned by William Putt to take command of matters in Quebec
-led British forces to benchmark victory at The Battle of Quebec
Pontiac's uprising (1763)
Pontiac was an Ottawa chieftain--led several tribes & some remaining French fur-trappers on a violent rampage to eradicate British from Ohio country (killed ~2,000 soldiers and settlers)
Proclamation of 1763
issued by Parliament--prohibited settlement beyond Appalachians. (Keeping colonists near to the coast benefitted the British government economically by increasing trade and ease of taxation, as well as avoiding clashes between natives and settlers which would have cost parliament more money that they didn't have after the war debts incurred by the French and Indian war.)
-contributed to growing colonial resentment of royal power (IRT Pontiac's uprising)