Section I Clinical Notes

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This is all the Clinical Notes and Diseases from Section I. Hope this helps in studying =)

Calcium Channel Blockers

medications that prevent calcium channels from opening (relax arteries)

Cystic Fibrosis

chloride pumps fail to create adequate saline layer under mucus

Cystic Fibrosis (consequence)

thick mucus plugs pancreatic ducts & respiratory tract

Immotile Cilia Syndrome

mutation in proteins of cilia & flagella (aka Kartagener syndrome)

Immotile Cilia Syndrome (symptoms)

immotile spermatozoa, male infertility, & chronic respiratory infections

Tay-Sachs disease

lysosomal storage disease; glycolipids are endocytosed & accumulate in neurons of brain

Tay-Sachs disease (cause)

Hexosaminidase A enzyme deficiency

Vincristine

(chemo drug) microtubule assembly disruptor used to prevent cell division & tumor growth

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

hereditary disease with abnormally low number of LDL receptors

Marfan's Syndrome

abnormal expression of the fibrillin 1 gene

Marfan's Syndrome (consequence)

abnormal elastic tissue (e.x. hyperextendible joints, hernias, & enormous dilation of aorta)

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

inherited defect that affects elaboration of collagen fibers

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (symptoms)

hyperelasticity of skin & joint dislocations

Pemphigus Vulgaris

(autoimmune disease) autoantibodies attack proteins of desmosomes

Metaplasia

change from 1 cell/tissue type to another as a result of physical/chemical stress

Skin Growth Disease

cyst, malformation, or a benign or malignant neoplasm

Rash

inflammatory skin condition or a dermatitis

Acne

inflammation of the sebaceous glands

Dermatitis

any inflammation of the skin (itching and redness)

Eczema

itchy, red, "weeping" skin lesions caused by an allergy

Psoriasis

recurring, reddened plaques covered with silvery scale

Rosacea

a red rashlike area (nose & cheeks) marked by fine networks of dilatd blood vessels

Seborrheic

recurring patches of scaly white or yellowish inflammation (head, face, chest, & back)

Tinea

any fungal infection of the skin

Basal Cell Carcinoma

skin cancer arises from stratum basale (containing sebaceous glands) & invades dermis

Basal Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)

small shiny bump (enlarges into a central depression, beaded "pearly" edge)

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

skin cancer arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum; penetrates the dermis

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (characteristic)

raised, reddened, scaly appearance (later forming concave ulcer with raised edges)

Malignant Melanoma

skin cancer arises from melanocytes of a preexisting mole (most deadly)

Malignant Melanoma (characteristic)

ABCD - asymmetry, border irregular, color mixed, & diameter over 6 mm

1st-degree Burn

only the epidermis (red, painful and edema)

2nd-degree Burn

epidermis & part of dermis (blistered)

3rd-degree Burn

epidermis, dermis, & more is destroyed

Rickets

defective mineralization of bone in children (Vit D deficiency)

Osteomalacia

mineralization of bone matrix is impaired (soft bones); Vit D deficiency

Osteoporosis

decreased bone mass; spicules thinner than normal bone

Osteogenesis imperfecta

"Brittle Bone Disease" (genetic disorder of type I collagen)

Osteitis deformans

excessive proliferation of osteoclasts & resorption of excess bone

Osteomyelitis

Inflammation of osseous tissue & bone marrow due to bacterial infection

Pituitary Dwarfism

deficiency of growth hormone; proportional failure of bone growth

Gigantism

excess growth hormone (prior epiphyseal plate closure); abnormal bone length

Acromegaly

excess growth hormone (post epiphyseal plate closure); thickening of bones

Achondroplastic Dwarfism

failure of cartilage growth; long bones stop growing; normal torso, short limbs

Osteocalcin

bone specific vit K-dependent calcium binding protein

BMPs

bone morphogenic proteins; induce differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts

Long term risk of PPI's

increase in fracture due to no calcium absorption in stomach (no acidification)

Arthritis

broad term embracing more than 100 types of joint rheumatism

Bursitis

inflammation of a bursa, usually due to overexertion of a joint

Dislocation

displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint

Gout

chronic metabolic disease characterized by an elevated body load of uric acid

Rheumatism

broad term for any pain in the supportive & locomotory organs of the body

Sprain

torn ligament or tendon

Strain

painful overstretching of a tendon or muscle without serious tissue damage

Synovitis

inflammation of a joint capsule (specifically the synovial sheath)

Tendinitis

a form of bursitis in which a tendon sheath is inflamed

Rotator Cuff Tears

tears of 1 or more of the 4 tendons of the rotator cuff muscles (most typically involves the supraspinatus muscle)

Osteoarthritis

most common form of arthritis (not a systemic disease)

Rheumatoid arthritis

autoimmune attack on the joints (synovial membrane); symmetrical inflammation of joints

Plantar Fasciitis

inflammation of the plantar fascia at its attachment site on the calcaneus

Halux Valgus

deviation of the great toe medially

Bunion

inflammation of soft tissue of 1st MTP joint followed by bone deposition

Spina Bifida

neural tube defect due to insufficient folic acid

Addison disease

bronzing of the skin due to deficiency of glucocorticoid hormones

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

(hereditary disease) abnormally low number of LDL receptors

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