Health/Wellness Chapter 2

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physical activity

body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles that requires energy

exercise

planned, structured, repetitive movement intended to improve or maintain physical fitness

health-related fitness

physical capacities that contribute to health: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibilty, and body compostion

cardiorespiratory endurance

the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity

muscular strength

the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort

metabolism

the sum of all the vital processes by which food , energy and nutrients are made available to the body

muscular endurance

the ability of a muscle to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time

flexibilty

the ability to move joints through their full range of motion; many factors such joint structure affect; needed in everyday routines

body composition

the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

fat-free mass

the nonfat component of the human body, consisting of skeletal muscle, bone, and water

skill-related fitness

physical capabilities that contribute to performance in a sport or an activity: speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time

physical training

the performance of different types of activities that cause the body to adapt and improve its level of fitness

specificity

the training principle that the body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it

progressive overload

the training principle that placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness; too little exercise--will have no effect on fitness too much--may cause injury

reversibility

the training principle that fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered

exercise stress test

a test usually administered on a treadmill or cycle ergometer that involves analysis of the changes in electrical activity in the heart from an electrocardiogram (EKG, ECG) taken during exercise; used to determine if any heart disease is present and to assess current fitness level

graded exercise test (GXT)

an exercise test that starts at an easy intensity and progresses to maximum capacity

overtraining

a condition caused by training too much or too intensely; characterized by lack of energy, decreased physical performance, and aching muscles and joints

31

___% of adults participate in some leisure-time physical activity

cognitive function--the ability of the brain to learn, remember, think, and reason

Exercise improves _____.

nerve cells (nuerons)

Exercise promotes the creation of new ______.

150 minutes

For substantial health benefits, adults should do at least ______ a week of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity

300 minutes

For more extensive health benefits, adults should do _______ a week of moderate-intensity activity.

2 or more

Adults should do muscle strengthening activities that are moderate to high intensity and involve all major muscle groups ______ days per week.

10

Health benefits can be acheived from multiple bouts of _______ or more minutes.

public health and individual well-being

If Americans who are currently sedentary increased their activity level to 30 minutes per day, then there would be an enormous benefit to ________.

90 minutes

150 mins. per week of exercise may not be enough for people who are trying to manage their weight, and may need to do up to _______ per day of physical activity.

F: frequency-how often I: intensity-how hard T: time-how long (duration) T: type-mode of activity

FITT principle

50%; 2 months

Up to __ of fitness improvements are lost within _____ if you stop exercising.

easy

Strength fitness is ____ to maintain.

40; 50

If you are a man under ___ or a woman under ___ exercise is most likely safe

declined

Physical activity levels have _____ and remain low for Americans.

heart's abilty to pump blood, energy-generating capacity of the cells,

Levels of fitness depend on what?

health; benefits

Physical activity is essential to _____ and confers many health _______.

cardiovascular fitness

prolonged, large-muscle dynamic exercises--depends on lungs ability and bloodstream

mass; density; self-confidence; stress

Benefits of fitnes include: increased body _____, metabolism, bone _____, reduced effects of sarcopenia, improved _____ and abilty to manage _____.

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